- Overall agricultural research and development (R&D) spending fluctuated significantly, showing considerable differences from one year to the next.
- The Togolese Agricultural Research Institute (ITRA) is the country’s main agricultural R&D agency, accounting for approximately two-thirds of Togo’s agricultural R&D capacity and spending in 2008.
- The declining agricultural research capacity levels observed in Togo are mainly explained by staff departures as ITRA researchers left for retirement but were not replaced.
Agricultural research and development (R&D) spending in Ghana more than doubled during 2000–08, largely as a result of rising salary costs at the agencies under the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and increased funding for the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) following the country’s boost in cocoa production.Agricultural research staff also showed steady growth throughout this period, albeit at a much slower rate than expenditures.The higher education sector is playing an increasingly important role in Ghana’s agricultural R&D.Nonprofit and for profit p
Agricultural research and development (R&D) expenditures in Guinea have fallen gradually as a result of reduced donor support and cuts in government funding.Overall R&D capacity remained stable from 2000 to 2008, averaging around 220 full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers.The Guinean Institute for Agricultural Research (IRAG) is the country’s main agricultural R&D agency, employing two-thirds of the country’s agricultural research staff and accounting for two-thirds of its national agricultural R&D expenditures.From 2000 to 2008, IRAG was largely dependent on funding from t
Overall, public agricultural R&D expenditures in Senegal have fallen gradually due to reduced donor support and cuts in government funding.Despite large investments in research capacity in recent years, both the Senegalese Agricultural Research Institute (ISRA) and the Food Technology Institute (ITA) have reported significant attrition in their PhD-qualified research staff since 2004; the aging pool of well-qualified researchers, many of whom will retire in the next decade, is a major area of concern.The higher education sector is playing an increasingly important role in agricultural