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 Overall, agricultural research and development (R&D) spending rose rapidly in Botswana until 2007, after which it fell in response to spiraling inflation levels, which  prompted the government to cut funding to many public-sector agencies.Agricultural R&D capacity levels followed a similar trend.

Country Code: 
BWA
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Since the mid-1980s, agricultural research investments have declined in real prices (adjusted for inflation) in part as a result of high inflation rates in Malawi.Despite a higher decline in resources in the 1990s relative to other organizations, the Department of Agricultural Research Services (DARS) remains the primary agricultural research agency in Malawi; it accounted for nearly half the country’s agricultural research spending and researcher numbers in 2001.About half of the research positions at DARS were vacant as of early 2003.

Country Code: 
MWI
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  • Zambia’s historical trend of declining public agricultural research and development (R&D) investments continued during 2001–08 due to weakened government and donor support.
  • The country’s agricultural research capacity also deteriorated during 2001–06, both in terms of numbers of full-time equivalent researchers and levels of educational qualifications.
Country Code: 
ZMB
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 Total public agricultural R&D spending in Mauritius fell by almost 25 percent during 2001–08, largely due to declining expenditures by the Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute (MSIRI), the country’s largest agricultural R&D agency.

Country Code: 
MUS
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Madagascar’s agricultural R&D spending fell by roughly a quarter during 2008–2011 (in inflation-adjusted terms), largely driven by declines at CNARP, CNRO, and FIFAMANOR.

Country Code: 
MDG
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 National agricultural R&D spending increased by 5 percent during 2008–2011, primarily due to increased government support; nonetheless, spending as a share of agricultural GDP remained fairly constant.Although the national number of BSc-qualified researchers increased by 20 percent during 2008–2011, substantially increasing Tanzania’s total number of researchers, the number of researchers with PhD qualifications declined by 20 FTEs during this timeframe.In 2010 steps were taken to transform DRD and DRTE from government divisions to semiautonomous bodies in order to provide greate

Country Code: 
TZA
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Key trends: Total spending on agricultural R&D grew by 15 percent during 2008–2011, stemming from increased spending by the country’s main agricultural R&D agency, NARO. The Ugandan government doubled its commitments to NARO during 2008–2011 (in inflation-adjusted terms); however, development bank funding and donor contributions fell by half over the same timeframe. The number of FTE researchers increased at NARO and the seven other agencies involved in agricultural R&D.

Country Code: 
UGA
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Key trends: Public agricultural R&D spending increased by 11 percent during 2008–2011 as a result of strong growth at the Coffee Research Foundation and other government agencies involved in agricultural research. KARI’s total 2011 spending was about 10 percent lower than in 2008 (in inflation-adjusted terms), mostly due to declining capital investments, which fell from 5 percent in 2008 to only 2 percent in 2011. The total number of researchers employed at KARI remained fairly constant during 2008–2011, but the number qualified to the PhD level fell by 15 percent; researcher

Country Code: 
KEN
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Key trends: National agricultural research spending increased by a modest 8 percent during 2008–2011.

Country Code: 
ETH
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