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South Africa

Data sources

Primary data were collected through four consecutive institutional survey rounds in 1984, 1993-94 (both under ISNAR’s “Indicators Series Project”), 2003-04, and 2008-09 (both under the ASTI initiative). These data were combined with a number of secondary data sources:

ARC (Agricultural Research Council). 2010. ARC .Financial database. Pretoria.

CeSTII (Centre for Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators). 2008. South African national survey of research & experimental development, 2007/08. Unpublished surveys. Pretoria.

DEAT (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism). 2010. Annual report 2009/10. Pretoria.

DoA (Department of Agriculture). 2009. Investigation report on the status of provincial research centers. Draft report. Pretoria.

NMMU (Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University). 2010. Department of Agriculture and Game Management. Accessed June 2010.

NWU (North-West University). 2010. Faculty of Agriculture, Science & Technology: School of Agricultural Sciences. Accessed June 2010.

RSA (Republic of South Africa). 2010. Estimates of national expenditure. Pretoria: Department of Finance.

UFS (University of the Free State). 2010. Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences: Report 2008. Bloemfontein. Accessed December 2010.

UL (University of Limpopo). 2010. Faculty of Science and Agriculture. Accessed December 2010.

UNISA (University of South Africa). 2010. College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. Accessed June 2010.

Univen (University of Venda). 2010. School of Agriculture. Accessed December 2010.

Unizulu (University of Zululand). 2010. Faculty of Science and Agriculture. Accessed December 6, 2010.

UP (University of Pretoria). 2010. Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences: Yearbook 2008. Accessed December 6, 2010.

For additional secondary sources that were used to construct the pre-1991 data series, see appendices and reference lists in Roseboom, Pardey, Sartorius von Bach and Zyl (1995) Download PDF and Liebenberg, Beintema, and Kristen (2004) Download PDF.

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.
  • Salaries and living expenses of many expatriate researchers working on donor-supported projects at the (often main) agricultural research agencies are paid directly by their respective agency. The average implicit costs of expatriate R&D staff were calculated in the early 1990s (see Appendix 2 in Roseboom, Pardey, Sartorius von Bach and Zyl 1995), and have been extrapolated to more recent years using salary averages of a few CGIAR centers.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit

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Abrégés statistiques

ASTI publications covers

Annuaire des agences ASTI - Tunisie




• De 1996 à 2002, le total des dépenses et les effectifs de chercheurs agricoles ont augmenté de façon constante en Tunisie, même si l’on note une progression bien plus irrégulière des dépenses. 

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Annuaire des agences ASTI - Maroc





• L’effectif des chercheurs agricoles a connu au Maroc dans les années 80 et 90 une croissance continue tandis que le total des dépenses consacrées à la R&D agricole fluctuait assez irrégulièrement.

• L’INRA et l’IAV Hassan II sont les plus grands organismes de R&D du Maroc ; en 2002, ils représentaient respectivement 40 et 25 % du total des chercheurs ETP et des dépenses du secteur de la recherche agricole. 

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Annuaire des agences ASTI - Rwanda



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