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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Mali

 

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Mali (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Mali-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Rural Economy Institute (IER). Based on data collected by ASTI and IER, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Mali's public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1981, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and IER in 2003–04.

D. Research Allocation across Commodities and Themes

This section provides detailed quantitative information on Mali's public agricultural research allocation in 2008. Complementary sections present detailed data on long–term trends (Section A), financial resources (Section B), and human resources (Section C). Further supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

In 2008, 139 of Mali's 310 full–time equivalent (FTE) researchers for which research focus data were available were involved in crop research. Of the remaining researchers, 63 focused on livestock, 43 focused on forestry, 26 focused on pastures and forages, and 23 focused on natural resources. The category labeled "other" includes researchers involved in fisheries research or working on socioeconomic and post–harvest issues.

Table D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.
Note: Data for Higher Institute of Training and Applied Research (ISFRA) were unavailable.

Figure D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

This figure presents the allocation of FTE researchers across different commodity areas (see also Table D1). In 2008, 45 percent of Mali's agricultural researchers were involved in crop research. An additional 21 percent focused on livestock research, 15 percent on forestry research, 8 percent on pastures and fodder, and 8 percent on natural resources.

Figure D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.
Note: Data for Higher Institute of Training and Applied Research (ISFRA) were unavailable.

Table D2–Focus of crop and livestock research by major item, 2008

In 2008, rice research accounted for 21 percent of all resources allocated to crop and livestock research. Other important crops were cotton (12 percent), vegetables (8 percent), millet (7 percent), potatoes (6 percent), and sorghum (5 percent). The principal livestock commodities are sheep and goats (11 percent), beef (10 percent) and poultry (7 percent).

Table D2–Focus of crop and livestock research by major item, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.
Note: Data for Higher Institute of Training and Applied Research (ISFRA) were unavailable.

Table D3–Focus of crop and livestock research by major theme, 2008

This table presents FTE researchers by thematic area in absolute and relative terms. Crop–related themes are the most important in Mali, accounting for 164 of the 310 FTE researchers employed in 2008 at the three–agency sample for which thematic focus data were available. That year, 10 percent of Mali's agricultural researchers focused on crop genetic improvement, 20 percent focused on crop pest and disease control, and another 23 percent focused on other research related to crops. Livestock research was another important area, accounting for 21 percent of the country's agricultural researchers.

Table D3–Focus of crop and livestock research by major theme, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.
Note: Data for Higher Institute of Training and Applied Research (ISFRA) were unavailable..

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute and Rural Economy Institute. Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgement to IFPRI and IER. This series is an output of the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or IER.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Mali

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Mali (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Mali-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Rural Economy Institute (IER). Based on data collected by ASTI and IER, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Mali's public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1981, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and IER in 2003–04.

C. Human Resources

This section provides detailed quantitative information on full–time equivalent (FTE) agricultural research and support staff trends, including qualifications, gender and age distribution, and support–staff–per–researcher ratios. Complementary sections of this issue on Mali present detailed data on long–term trends (Section A), financial resources (Section B) and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table C1–Total research staff levels across various agencies, 2008

In 2008, the Rural Economy Institute (IER) accounted for more than 80 of percent of the full–time equivalent (FTE) research capacity in Mali, with 257 FTEs. The Rural Polytechnic Institute for Training and Applied Research (IPR–IFRA) had the second highest number of researchers ( 42 FTEs) accounting for 14 percent of the country's R&D research capacity. In 2008, there were a total of 313 FTE researchers in Mali.

Table C1–Total research staff levels across various agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.
Note: For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see http://asti.cgiar.org/mali/datacoverage.

Figure C1–Full–time equivalent researcher trends at IER by degree, 2001–08

The number of PhD–qualified FTE researchers at IER increased during 2001–08 from 41 to 61, while the number of MSc–qualified researchers remained fairly stable. IER did not employ any BSc–level researchers during this period. In addition to these state–employed researchers ("fonctionnaires"), there was a large number of contract researchers ("contractuels") for which degree data were not available.

Figure C1–Full–time equivalent researcher trends at IER by degree, 2001–08

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.

Figure C2–Full–time equivalent researcher trends at IPR–IFRA and ISFRA by degree, 2001–08

FTE research capacity at IPR–IFRA and the Higher Institute of Training and Applied Research (ISFRA) has risen from 31 FTE researchers in 2001 to 45 in 2009. Most of this increase occurred from 2001 to 2002 when IPR–IFRA hired 7 BSc–qualified researchers.

Figure C2–Full–time equivalent researcher trends at IPR–IFRA and ISFRA by degree, 2001–08

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.
Note: For a complete list of the agencies included in our sample, see asti.cgiar.org/mali/agencies.

Figure C3–Distribution of researcher qualifications across various agencies, 2008

The two higher education agencies and the Central Veterinary Laboratory (LCV) had the highest share of FTE researchers with PhD degrees (38 percent). In 2008, 35 percent of FTE researchers at IER held PhD degrees and 65 percent held MSc degrees.

Figure C3–Distribution of researcher qualifications across various agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.

Figure C4–Share of female researchers by degree and institutional category, 2001 and 2008

In 2008, 13 percent of Mali's agricultural researchers were female. At LCV, the proportion of female researchers was much larger than at IER and the two higher–education agencies. At IER, women are especially underrepresented, with the exception of the Food Technology Laboratory where women (one of whom is the director) form the majority. The share of female researchers increased at IER from 2001 to 2008.

Figure C4–Share of female researchers by degree and institutional category, 2001 and 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. 2001 gender data for LCV were unavailable. A complete list of the agencies included in the sample, see asti.cgiar.org/mali/agencies.

Figure C5–Distribution of researcher qualifications by gender, 2001 and 2008

This figure illustrates the relative levels of researcher qualifications at IER and higher education agencies by gender in 2001 and 2008. The share of female PhD–qualified staff and BSc–qualified staff increased during this period from 28 to 42 percent and 0 to 6 percent, respectively.

Figure C5–Distribution of researcher qualifications by gender, 2001 and 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. 2001 gender data for LCV were unavailable. A complete list of the agencies included in the sample, see asti.cgiar.org/mali/agencies.

Figure C6–Trends in full–time equivalent support staff at IER, 2001–08

The overall number of support staff at IER–including, technicians, administrative staff, and other support staff–increased from 456 FTEs in 2001 to 621 FTEs in 2008. This increase mainly took place from 2007 to 2008 when the number of MSc–qualified technicians at IER increased from 97 to 152 FTEs.

Figure C6–Trends in full–time equivalent support staff at IER, 2001–08

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.
Note: Support staff data were not available at any of the other agencies during this period.

Figure C7–Support–staff–per–researcher ratio at IER, 2001 and 2008

The support–staff–per–researcher at IER ratio slightly increased from 2.2 in 2001 to 2.4 in 2008. In 2008, for every agricultural researcher, IER employed 1.9 technicians, 0.4 administrative staff, and 0.1 other support staff.

Figure C7–Support–staff–per–researcher ratio at IER, 2001 and 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.
Notes: For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Mali country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/mali/datacoverage.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute and Rural Economy Institute. Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgement to IFPRI and IER. This series is an output of the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or IER.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Mali

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Mali (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Mali-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Rural Economy Institute (IER). Based on data collected by ASTI and IER, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Mali's public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1981, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and IER in 2003–04.

B. Financial Resources

This section provides detailed quantitative information on expenditures in Mali's public agricultural R&D for the period 1991–2008. Complementary sections present detailed data on long–term trends (Section A), human resources (Section C), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table B1–Total spending levels in billion 2005 CFA francs across various agencies, 2008

In 2008, the Rural Economy Institute (IER) accounted for over three–quarters of Mali's agricultural research and development (R&D) expenditures spending 18.9 billion 2005 CFA francs. The only other government agency, the Central Veterinary Laboratory (LCV), accounted for 9 percent of total spending, or 2.2 billion CFA francs. Combined, the higher education sector spent 3.6 billion CFA francs and accounted for 14 percent of total expenditures.

Table B1–Total spending levels in billion 2005 CFA francs across various agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see asti.cgiar.org/mali/datacoverage.

Figure B1–IER and LCV's spending by cost category, adjusted for inflation, 2005–08

Given that contract staff is not on IER's payroll and that their salaries are paid out of the institute's operating budget, it was very difficult to make a distinction between salary spending and operating costs. Salaries, operating, and program costs have therefore been lumped together. During 2005–08, IER allocated 86 percent of its budget to staff salaries, operating, and program costs, and 14 percent to capital investments. Over the past few years, IER has invested considerable sums of money in planning and laying out plots of agricultural land, in building laboratories, and rehabilitating some of its research infrastructure. During the same period, LCV allotted 26 percent of its budget to salary costs, with operating costs accounting for 59 percent and capital investments for 16 percent.

Figure B1–IER and LCV's spending by cost category, adjusted for inflation, 2005–08

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.

 

Figure B2–IER's funding sources adjusted for inflation, 2004–08

IER derives its funding from three primary sources: the national government; donors and development banks; and internally–generated resources. During 2004–08, the share of funding received from the national government increased from 28 to 44 percent. In contrast, donor contributions as a share of IER's funding fell from 60 to 53 percent. IER also received funds through the sale of seeds and delivery of services. However, revenue received from these activities only accounted for 3 percent of IER's funding in 2008.

Figure B2–IER's funding sources adjusted for inflation, 2004–08

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute and Rural Economy Institute. Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgement to IFPRI and IER. This series is an output of the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or IER.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Mali

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Mali asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Mali-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Rural Economy Institute (IER). Based on data collected by ASTI and IER, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Mali's public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1981, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and IER in 2002–04.

A. Long–Term Trends

This section provides detailed quantitative information on long–term investment and capacity trends in Mali's public agricultural R&D for the period 1981–2008. Subsequent sections present detailed data on financial resources (Section B), human resources (Section C), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Figure A1–Agricultural R&D spending adjusted for inflation, 1981–2008

Following a period of steady growth that lasted from the mid–1980s to the turn of the millennium, total agricultural research and development (R&D) spending levels in Mali have since exhibited an erratic trend. This erratic trend was driven by unstable levels of donor funding at the Rural Economy Institute (IER). In 2008, R&D investments totaled 5.6 billion CFA francs, or 24.6 million PPP dollars, both in 2005 constant prices.

Figure A1–Agricultural R&D spending adjusted for inflation, 1981–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number agencies in each category. "Other government (3)" includes the National Institute of Zootechnic, Forestry, and Hydrobiological Research (INRZFH) and the Agricultural Mechanization Division (DMA), which merged with IER in 1990 and 2001, respectively. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Mali country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/mali.

Figure A2–Agricultural R&D spending in current CFA francs, 1981–2008

In current prices, public agricultural R&D spending showed a steady increase during the 1981–2008, but it has not kept pace with national inflation rates (see Figure A1).

Figure A2–Agricultural R&D spending in current CFA francs, 1981–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Table A1–Agricultural research spending, 1971–2008

The underlying data show that agricultural R&D spending at higher education agencies has been steadily increasing from an average of 0.2 billion CFA francs or 0.8 million PPP dollars in the early 1980s, to 1.0 billion CFA francs or 4.3 million PPP dollars during 2006–08. IER and the other government agencies experienced much more erratic trends. Spending at IER peaked in the late 1990s at an average of 6.1 billion CFA francs or 25.2 million PPP dollars and declined thereafter reaching 4.6 billion CFA francs or 19.3 million PPP dollars during 2006–08. In contrast, agricultural R&D spending slightly increased at the other government agencies after the turn of the millennium reaching an average of 0.5 billion CFA francs or 2.2 million PPP dollars during 2006–08.

Table A1–Agricultural research spending, 1971–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Figure A3–Shares of agricultural R&D spending by institutional category, 1981–2008

As absolute levels of agricultural R&D spending increased at IER during the 1980s and 1990s, so did IER's relative share of total agricultural R&D expenditures. During the late 1990s, IER accounted for 85 percent of total agricultural R&D expenditures in Mali while other government agencies and higher education agencies accounted for 5 and 10 percent, respectively. However, IER's share of total agricultural R&D expenditures decreased after the turn of the millennium. During 2005–08, IER accounted for 75 percent, the higher education agencies accounted for 17 percent, and other government agencies accounted 9 percent total agricultural R&D expenditures.

Figure A3–Shares of agricultural R&D spending by institutional category, 1981–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Shares are based on five–year averages with the exception of 2005–08, a three–year average.

Table A2–Annual rates of R&D spending growth by institutional category, 1981–2008

The annual rate of growth in public agricultural R&D spending in Mali was negative in the early 1980s before becoming positive through the late 1980s and 1990s. The National Institute of Zootechnic, Forestry, and Hydrobiological Research (INRZFH) and the Agricultural Mechanization Division (DMA) merged with IER in 1990 and 2001 leading to a declining annual growth rate in the other government category. Central Veterinary Laboratory (LCV), the only remaining other government agency, had a strong growth rate of more than 20 percent during 2001–06 and 3 percent during 2006–08. However, LCV's positive growth rate was more than off–set by negative growth rates at IER and the higher education agencies during 2006–08 when the annual growth rate reached –2 percent.

Table A2–Annual rates of R&D spending growth by institutional category, 1981–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Annual growth rates were calculated using the least squares regression method. Expenditures at the higher education agencies were estimated. For more information, see asti.cgiar.org/mali/datacoverage.

Figure A4–Agricultural research staffing in full–time equivalents, 1981–2008

Mali's total agricultural research capacity levels also present an irregular trend. Since the turn of the millennium, important annual variations have been recorded which are largely due to alternating waves of hiring and laying–off staff at IER. In 2008, Mali employed a total of 313 researchers expressed in full–time equivalents (FTEs).

Figure A4–Agricultural research staffing in full–time equivalents, 1981–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see asti.cgiar.org/mali/datacoverage

Table A3–Agricultural research staffing in full–time equivalents, 1981–2008

Disaggregated data illustrate the fluctuations of human resource capacity in Mali's agricultural R&D system over time. Research capacity at IER steadily rose from 127 FTEs in the early 1980s reaching an average of 240 FTEs during 2001–05 and falling sharply thereafter. As a result of the aforementioned mergers of two of the other government agencies into IER, research capacity at other government agencies sharply dropped in the early 1990s. Research capacity at the higher education agencies increased from 6 FTE in the early 1980s to 44 during 2006–08.

Table A3–Agricultural research staffing in full–time equivalents, 1981–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five–year averages with the exception of 2006–08, a three–year average.

Figure A5–Shares of agricultural R&D staffing by institutional category, 1981–2008

The distribution of agricultural research staff changed during 1981–2008. During the 1980s, IER accounted for more than 60 percent of agricultural R&D capacity in Mali. However, as a result of the merger of two other government agencies with IER, the institute's share climbed to more than 80 percent during the 1990s before falling to 75 percent during 2005–08. The higher education agencies' share of agricultural R&D capacity increased from 3 percent in the early 1980s to 17 percent during 2005–08.

Figure A5–Shares of agricultural R&D staffing by institutional category, 1981–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Table A4–Annual rates of growth in R&D staffing by institutional category, 1981–2008

The annual rate of growth in R&D capacity was strong in the early 1980s (8.4 percent) but thereafter became negative. Not until 2006–08 did the annual growth rate of agricultural R&D capacity become positive again reaching 16 percent. This strong growth rate was driven by IER's growth rate of 19 percent.

Table A4–Annual rates of growth in R&D staffing by institutional category, 1981–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Annual growth rates were calculated using the least squares regression method.

Table A5–Agricultural research intensity ratios, 1981–2008

All agricultural research intensity ratios declined from 1981 to 2008. Research spending as a share of agricultural gross domestic product (AgGDP) fell by 40 percent during this period. During 1981–85, the country spent an average of $1.39 of its AgGDP on agricultural research compared with $0.64 during 2006–08. Additionally, the number of researchers per million farmers fell from 127 FTEs in the early 1980s to 105 in 2006–08.

Table A5–Agricultural research intensity ratios, 1981–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI–IER 2009–10 and Stads and Kouriba 2004; FAO 2009; and World Bank 2009.
Notes: Calculations are based on five–year averages with the exception of 2005–08, a three–year average. Research spending as a share of AgGDP is calculated using a weighted average. Farmers are defined as the economically active agricultural population (an FAO classification). Pre–1980 data on farmer numbers were unavailable.


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Mali - Tendances de fond

Mali - Tendances de fond

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Guinée - Tendances de fond

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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Guinea

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Guinea (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Guinea-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Guinean Agricultural Research Institute (IRAG). Based on data collected by ASTI and IRAG, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Guinea's public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1991, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and IRAG in 2003–04.

D. Research Allocation across Commodities and Themes

This section provides detailed quantitative information on Guinea's public agricultural research allocation for 2008. Complementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), financial resources (Section B), and human resources (Section C). Further supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

This table presents researcher numbers by major commodity area, both in absolute and relative terms. In 2008, 133 of Guinea's 229 FTE researchers performed crop research. Thirty FTEs focused on livestock, 19 on fisheries, 8 on natural resources, and 7 on forestry issues. The remaining 52 FTEs concentrated on socioeconomic research or other matters. The share of crop research was highest at IRAG. Fisheries research was mostly carried out by other government agencies, whereas forestry research was mostly conducted in the higher education sector.

Table D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Figure D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

This figure presents data on the allocation of FTE researchers across commodity areas. In 2008, close to half of Guinea's 229 agricultural FTEs for whom data were available conducted crop research. Livestock research occupied 13 percent of all FTEs, whereas forestry and natural resources research each accounted for 3 percent. Figure D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

Source : Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Table D2–Focus of crop and livestock research by major item, 2008

Rice was the most researched crop in Guinea in 2008, accounting for 21 percent of the FTE researchers involved in crop and livestock research. Other important crops included potatoes, coffee, palm oil, corn, and ornamental plants. The Guinean government overtly prioritizes research on food crops over export crops due to the importance of food security. The country's livestock researchers primarily focus on beef, sheep, and goats.

Table D2–Focus of crop and livestock research by major item, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Guinean Agricultural Research Institute (IRAG). Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgement to IFPRI and IRAG. This series is an output of the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or IRAG.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Guinea

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Guinea (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Guinea-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Guinean Agricultural Research Institute (IRAG). Based on data collected by ASTI and IRAG, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Guinea's public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1991, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and IRAG in 2003–04.

C. Human Resources

This section provides detailed quantitative information on full-time equivalent (FTE) agricultural research and support staff trends, including qualifications, gender distribution, and support-staff-per-researcher ratios. Complementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), financial resources (Section B) and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table C1–Total researcher levels across various agencies, 2008

In 2008, Guinea's Agricultural Research Institute (IRAG) employed 152 full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers, accounting for two-thirds of the country total human resource capacity in agricultural R&D. Two of the other government agencies, Institut Pasteur de Guinée (IPG) and the National Fisheries Science Center of Boussoura (CNSHB) employed more than 10 FTE researchers, whereas the remaining six government and all higher education agencies employed 5 FTEs or fewer.

Table C1–Total researcher levels across various agencies, 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Data include French and North Korean expatriate research staff employed at IRAG. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Guinea country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/guinea/datacoverage.

Figure C1–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at IRAG by degree, 1991–2008

The number of researchers at IRAG increased from 130 FTEs in 1991 to 143 FTEs in 2008. IRAG's agricultural research capacity also became more highly qualified. In 1991, 16 percent of IRAG's researchers held MSc or PhD degrees, compared with 27 percent in 2008.

Figure C1–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at IRAG by degree, 1991–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Note: For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see asti.cgiar.org/guinea/datacoverage.

Figure C2–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at other government agencies by degree, 2001–08

The number of researchers employed at the other government agencies remained constant during the 2001–08 period. Average degree levels at these agencies also remained stable.

Figure C2–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at other government agencies by degree, 2001–08

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009.
Notes: IPG was excluded from this figure because data were not available. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see asti.cgiar.org/guinea/datacoverage.

Figure C3–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at higher education agencies by degree, 1995–2008

The number of agricultural researchers employed at the higher education agencies increased from 21 FTEs in 1995 to 30 FTEs in 2008. Despite this increase in total capacity, the share of PhD-qualified researchers decreased from 34 to 29 percent, but the share of MSc-qualified researchers more than doubled to 31 percent in 2008.

Figure C3–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at higher education agencies by degree, 1995–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Note: For a complete list of the agencies included in our sample, see asti.cgiar.org/guinea/agencies.

Figure C4–Distribution of researcher qualifications across agencies, 2008

The Research Center for Waste Management (CREGED) and the Study Project on Indigenous Technologies (PERTEGUI) employed the highest share of PhD-qualified researchers in 2008 (50 percent). Notably, the other government agencies (combined) employed a higher share of PhD-qualified researchers than the higher education agencies (30 versus 23 percent), which sharply contrasts with the situation in other African countries. On average, 18 percent of the agricultural FTE researchers in Guinea held PhD qualifications, while 21 percent were MSc qualified, and 62 percent were BSc qualified.

Figure C4–Distribution of researcher qualifications across agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Figure C5–Share of female researchers by degree and institutional category, 2008

Consistent with other countries in this region, female researchers are severely underrepresented in Guinean agricultural R&D. Based on available data for 2008, women accounted for 5 percent of total agricultural R&D capacity. IRAG had the lowest share of female researchers across institutional categories (2 percent). The share of female researchers at thee other government agencies (combined) averaged 13 percent. Across degree levels, the highest share of female researchers was found among MSc-qualified researchers (13 percent). Notably, women accounted for only 1 percent of PhD-qualified researchers.

Figure C5–Share of female researchers by degree and institutional category, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. DNE, IPG, and PERTEGUI were excluded from the other government agencies, and ISAV-GR from the higher education agencies, because data were not available. For a complete list of the agencies included in the sample, see asti.cgiar.org/guinea/agencies.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Guinean Agricultural Research Institute (IRAG). Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgement to IFPRI and IRAG. This series is an output of the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or IRAG.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Guinea

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Guinea ( asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Guinea-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Guinean Agricultural Research Institute (IRAG). Based on data collected by ASTI and IRAG, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Guinea's public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1991, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and IRAG in 2003–04.

B. Financial Resources

This section provides detailed quantitative information on expenditures in Guinean public agricultural R&D for the period 1991–2008. Complementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), human resources (Section C), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table B1–Total spending levels in million 2005 CFA francs at various agencies, 2008

In 2008, the Guinean Agricultural Research Institute (IRAG) accounted for the largest share of expenditures of any single agency, at 2.6 billion CFA francs, and the Institut Pasteur de Guinée (IPG) ranked second, reporting expenditures of 0.5 billion CFA francs (in 2005 prices).

Figure

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Expenditures for the eight higher education agencies were estimated. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Guinea's country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/guinea/datacoverage. For full agency names see asti.cgiar.org/guinea/agencies.

 

Figure B1–IRAG's spending by cost category, adjusted for inflation, 1991–2008

IRAG's salaries failed to keep pace with the high inflation rates in 2008. As a result, real spending on salaries at IRAG declined during 1991–2008. In addition, operating costs and capital expenditures fluctuated significantly in response to the completion of the National Agricultural Services Project (NASP) in 2000, financed through a World Bank loan. In 2008, IRAG spent 0.3 billion CFA francs or 0.3 million PPP dollars on salaries, 0.7 billion CFA francs or 0.6 million PPP dollars on operating costs, and 0.3 billion CFA francs or 0.3 million PPP dollars on capital investments (in 2005 prices).

Figure B1–IRAG's spending by cost category, adjusted for inflation, 1991–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: Salaries exclude those of expatriate staff that were active at IRAG during the entire period. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see asti.cgiar.org/guinea/datacoverage htt://asti.cgiar.org/niger/datacoverage].

Figure B2–Distribution of spending at IRAG and other government agencies by cost category, 2001–08

This figure presents data on average spending by cost category for IRAG and three other government agencies. Salaries accounted for about half or more of IRAG's expenditures until 2005, when operating costs began to account for between 50 and 65 percent of IRAG's expenditures from 2005 onwards.

Figure B2–Distribution of spending at IRAG and other government agencies by cost category, 2001–08

Sources: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: LNPVDS, PERTEGUIE, and CREGED were the only other government agencies for which data were available during this period. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see asti.cgiar.org/guinea/datacoverage.

Figure B3–IRAG's funding sources adjusted for inflation, 2000–08

IRAG receives funding from a few sources only. During 2000–08, government funding remained relatively stable but was only sufficient to cover researcher salaries and a portion of the operating costs. Consequently, IRAG remained highly dependent on supplementary funding from donors. Following the completion of NASP in 2000, funding from the World Bank ceased; however, IRAG continued to receive considerable funding from the French government. In 2008, IRAG received 0.6 billion CFA francs or 0.5 million PPP dollars from the national government, and 2.0 billion CFA francs or 1.7 million PPP dollars from the French government.

Figure B3–IRAG's funding sources adjusted for inflation, 2000–08

Sources: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: Data include donor funding from the World Bank and France. The exact amounts received from other donors were unknown and hence had to be excluded. Donor funding from France includes the salaries of expatriate CIRAD staff employed at IRAG.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Guinean Agricultural Research Institute (IRAG). Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgement to IFPRI and IRAG. This series is an output of the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or IRAG.


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