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Ethiopia

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ETH
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French: 
Éthiopie
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Etiopía
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EIAR-HQ

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Ethiopia: ASTI–EIAR Country Factsheet

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Nienke Beintema, Mekonnen Hailu, Tesfaye Haregewoin, and Dejene Hilegiorgis

Year:
2017

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute and Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Ethiopia

Further information

Positive signs of growth

Strong government support combined with a World Bank loan, associated with EAAPP, prompted agricultural research spending to rise by one-quarter during 2011–2014 (in inflation adjusted terms). Ethiopia’s pool of agricultural researchers expanded considerably; by about 900 FTE researchers during 2011–2014. This growth occurred evenly across EIAR, RARIs and higher education agencies.

Persistent underinvestment

Underinvestment in agricultural R&D in Ethiopia is serious. Despite recent increases in funding to agricultural research, the country’s intensity ratio continued to decline in response to high growth in the agricultural sector. EIAR (and the RARIs) received substantial funding through EAAPP and other donor-supported programs to upgrade some of its laboratory infrastructure and equipment, but many laboratories still need to be upgraded.

Improving qualification levels

As of 2014, the majority of researchers employed at EIAR and the RARIs only held BSc degrees, and turnover among MSc- and PhD-qualified researchers was high. In response, the government doubled the salary levels of senior researchers employed at EIAR. Finally, donors have contributed US$1 million to enable the hiring of retired PhD-qualified researchers to mentor EIAR’s young researchers.

Stronger coordination

In efforts to strengthen the coordination of its fragmented agricultural research system, Ethiopia developed a NARS reform strategy and established the Ethiopian Agricultural Research Council. In turn, the Council prepared a roadmap to guide the country’s agricultural research system. In addition to providing detailed analyses of current and future challenges, the roadmap determined that the system was not making use of its existing facilities, which were deemed inadequate to meet the country’s research needs.

Ethiopia: ASTI–EIAR Country Factsheet

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Nienke Beintema, Mekonnen Hailu, Tesfaye Haregewoin, Michael Rahija, and Eyob Bezabeh

Year:
2014

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute and Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research.

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Ethiopia

National agricultural research spending increased by a modest 8 percent during 2008–2011. The majority of funding was derived from government sources, with foreign donors contributing around 20 percent in 2011. At just 0.19 percent in 2011, Ethiopia’s agricultural research intensity ratio (investment in agricultural R&D as a share of AgGDP) is one of the lowest in Africa.
 
Continuing the growing trend in Ethiopia toward the decentralization of research, in 2011 the RARIs accounted for half the country’s agricultural researchers (in FTEs) compared with about one-third in 2000. Combined, the RARIs accounted for 42 percent of total agricultural R&D spending in 2011.
 
Ethiopia has one of the fastest-growing, but youngest and least-qualified pools of agricultural researchers in Africa. As of 2011, more than half the country’s agricultural researchers (in FTEs) held only BSc degrees, and 48 percent were under 31 years old.

Ethiopia: ASTI–EIAR Country Brief

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Beintema, Nienke M.; Solomon, Menelik

Year:
2003

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR); and Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO)

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Ethiopia

Agricultural R&D in Ethiopia has received increasing financial support from the government and through two consecutive World Bank loans. Total researcher numbers and total spending almost doubled in the 1990s, but the country’s intensity of investment is still low compared with other African countries.

Through ARTP, a number of long-standing constraints to Ethiopian agricultural research are being addressed, including the shortage of MSc- and PhD-qualified research staff; insufficient physical and financial resources; weak organizational structures for agricultural research; inadequate coverage of agroecological zones; inadequate planning and prioritization of research; and lack of collaboration among research agencies, with extension and farmers organizations, and with possible partners abroad (Demel 2002).

These are vital steps given that a large number of Ethiopians are in food crisis and will depend on food aid for their survival. Agricultural research must continue to address the major problems of declining production and productivity, worsening land degradation, increasing food insecurity, and lack of rain.

Ethiopia: ASTI–EIAR Country Note

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Flaherty, Kathleen; Kelemework, Fasil; Kelemu, Kaleb

Year:
2010

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); and Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR)

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Ethiopia

Agricultural R&D investment and human resource capacity have both grown since the early 1990s in Ethiopia. Agricultural research spending doubled between 1993 and 2000, and then doubled again during 2000–01. The 2008 value of investment at 157 million birr or 70 million PPP dollars (both in 2005 constant prices), although lower than in 2001–02, was still significantly higher than 1990s levels. The increased expenditures were driven by considerable growth in both government and donor funding, and in particular the World Bank–loan financed project ARTP.

Nevertheless, despite the expenditure growth of the 1990s and early 2000s, by 2008 investments had contracted to levels similar to those recorded in 2000. The 2008 agricultural intensity ratio of $0.27 is one of the lowest ratios in the region, and funding remains highly dependent on donors and development bank loans. Delays in the disbursement of funds also present a significant challenge to the effective management of research expenditures.

The RARIs and many of the higher education agencies have expanded significantly since 2000, strengthening their role in Ethiopian agricultural R&D. In contrast, growth at EIAR was not sustained beyond 2001–04. The recent government initiative BPR brought about major changes in the structure of the country’s agricultural R&D agencies, the effects of which will not be known for a number of years. Ethiopia’s agricultural research agencies have some of the lowest levels of postgraduate qualifications in the region. Although the seven RARIs combined now employ more research staff than EIAR, these staff members are less well qualified in terms of postgraduate degrees. In addition, female participation in agricultural R&D remains low. The challenges of training staff, providing competitive salaries, and properly equipping the expanded agricultural research agencies should be primary areas of focus in the coming years.


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