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Food policy indicators: Tracking change: Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI)

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Authors:
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Year:
2017

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Publication category

Overview publications

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See also the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2017 Global Food Policy Report.

IFPRI’s flagship report reviews the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions of 2016, and highlights challenges and opportunities for 2017 at the global and regional levels.

This section of the report provides updates on data generated by IFPRI research in 2016 and illustrations of key trends. Indicators include investments in agricultural research, public spending on agriculture, capacity for food policy research, and agricultural total factor productivity, as well as a hunger index at the country level.

Comparing apples to apples: A new indicator of research and development investment intensity in agriculture

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Authors:
Alejandro Nin-Pratt

Year:
2016

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Publication category

Overview publications

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IFPRI Discussion Paper  01559

 

It has been apparent for more than a century that future economic progress in agriculture will be driven by the invention and application of new technologies resulting from expenditure in research and development (R&D) by governments and private firms. Nevertheless, it is conventional wisdom in the economic development literature that there is a significant underinvestment in agricultural R&D in developing countries. Evidence supporting this belief is provided, first by a vast literature showing returns on R&D expenditure to be so high as to justify levels of investment in multiples of those actually found, and second, from available data showing low research effort in developing countries as measured by the intensity ratio (IR), that is, the percentage of agricultural gross domestic product invested in agricultural R&D (excluding the for-profit private sector). This paper argues that the IR is an inadequate indicator to measure and compare the research efforts of a diverse group of countries and proposes an alternative index that allows meaningful comparisons between countries. The proposed index can be used to identify potential under-investors, determine intensity gaps, and quantify the R&D investment needed to close these gaps by comparing countries with similar characteristics. Results obtained using the new R&D intensity indicator with a sample of 88 countries show that the investment effort in developing countries is much higher than the one observed using the conventional IR measure. The new measure finds that countries like China, India, Brazil, and Kenya have similar levels of R&D intensity to those in the United States. To close the R&D intensity gap measured by the new index, developing countries will need to invest US$7.1 billion on top of the $21.4 billion invested on average during 2008–2011, an increase of 33 percent of total actual investment.

I&D AGROPECUARIA EN AMÉRICA CENTRAL: POLÍTICAS, INVERSIONES Y PERFIL INSTITUCIONAL

Aunque son relativamente pequeños y diversos entre sí, los países de América Central (Belice, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua y Panamá) encaran parecidos desafíos socioeconómicos y agropecuarios, comparten condiciones agroecológicas y climáticas comunes y, en conjunto, representan a unos 40 millones de personas con un patrimonio cultural común.

Autores: 
Gert-Jan Stads, Frank Hartwich, David Rodríguez y Francisco Enciso
Ano: 
2008
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Publisher: 
Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones sobre Políticas Alimentarias
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Investigación agropecuaria en Latinoamérica y el Caribe: un análisis de las instituciones, las inversiones y la capacidad

La región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe (LAC) está bien posicionada para incrementar su producción agropecuaria en respuesta a una población globalmente en crecimiento y un clima cambiante. La ventaja comparativa de la región se explica en parte, por la abundancia de naturales, incluyendo el agua.

Autores: 
Gert-Jan Stads, Nienke Beintema, Sandra Perez, Kathleen Flaherty y Cesar Falconi
Ano: 
2016
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Publisher: 
Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones sobre Políticas Alimentarias
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Bilan des capacités de R&D agricole nationale en Afrique au sud du Sahara

La croissance démographique élevée, la dégradation des sols, le changement climatique et la volatilité des prix des denrées alimentaires sont autant de facteurs qui influent sur la sécurité alimentaire en Afrique au sud du Sahara.

Auteurs: 
Nienke Beintema et Gert-Jan Stads
Année: 
2014
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Publié par: 
ASTI/Institut international de recherche sur les politiques alimentaires
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Enhancing Female Participation in Agricultural Research and Development: Rationale and Evidence

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Authors:
Nienke Beintema

Year:
2014

Publisher

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The chapter is now for sale, but will be for free after 1 year.

Enhancing women’s participation in agricultural research in developing countries can be an effective strategy for making agricultural research and development (R&D) systems more gender-aware. This chapter reviews the evidence on the trends in women’s participation in agricultural research with more detailed analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa, for which more detailed information is available. The author makes use of the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative, which is one of the few sex-disaggregated data sources on agricultural researchers in developing countries. In developing countries, less than one out of four researchers is a woman, although large differences exist across countries. The share of women employed in agricultural research and development has been increasing in most countries, but their share disproportionately declines on the higher rungs of the career ladder. The chapter summarizes the various general human resource challenges in agricultural R&D that developing countries face, specifically in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially the challenges women face prior to and during their science careers. In addition to reviewing important data, the author makes an argument for why increased participation of women in science is important in the developing world.

Investigación Agrícola Pública en América Latina y El Caribe: Tendencias de capacidad e inversión

El presente informe analiza las novedades institucionales y las principales tendencias de inversión y recursos en investigación y desarrollo agropecuario público (I&D) en América Latina y el Caribe (LAC). El informe se inspira de unos conjuntos de datos completos sobre los 15 países de la muestra a los que se unen datos sobre el PIB agropecuario nacional y estimaciones de los ratios de intensidad promedio de investigación agropecuaria para los países restantes para ofrecer un panorama global y regional más amplio.

Autores: 
Gert-Jan Stads y Nienke M. Beintema
Ano: 
2009
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Publisher: 
Instituto Internacional de Investigación en Políticas Alimentarias | Washington, DC
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ASTI Global Assessment of Agricultural R&D Spending

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Authors:
Nienke Beintema, Gert-Jan Stads, Keith Fuglie, and Paul Heisey

Year:
2012

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute | Washington, DC Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators | Rome, Italy Global Forum on Agricultural Research | Rome, Italy

Publication category

Overview publications

Overall, global agricultural R&D spending in the public and private sectors steadily increased between 2000 and 2008. As further proof of positive development, most of this growth was driven by developing countries, since growth in high-income countries stalled. But, spending growth in developing countries was largely driven by positive trends in a number of larger, more advanced middle-income countries—such as China and India—masking negative trends in numerous smaller, poorer, and more technologically challenged countries. Countries in this last group are often highly vulnerable to severe volatility in funding, and hence in spending, which impedes the continuity and ultimately the viability of their research programs. Many R&D agencies in this group lack the necessary human, operating, and infrastructural resources to successfully develop, adapt, and disseminate science and technology innovation.

Agricultural R&D stakeholders, including policymakers, donors, R&D managers, and international development groups, need reliable and up-to-date information on the status and direction of spending and human resource capacity levels. The complex interaction of new global challenges, including the recent food and financial crises and the effects of climate change, highlights the need for a continuous updating of key agricultural R&D indicators. ASTI’s role in this area is widely recognized and was discussed in the recent G8 and G20 reports. Through its widespread network of national, regional, and international partners, ASTI continues to monitor agricultural R&D spending levels worldwide and serves as an important implementer of the GCARD monitoring process— assuming ongoing international support is provided.

R&D agricole : investir pour l’avenir de l’Afrique; tendances, défis et opportunités

La promesse et les défis inhérents au développement du secteur agricole en Afrique subsaharienne ont incité à l’organisation de la conférence intitulée « R&D agricole : Investir pour l’avenir de l’Afrique – tendances, défis et opportunités ».

Auteurs: 
John Lynam, Nienke Beintema et Irene Annor–Frempong
Année: 
2012
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Publié par: 
Institut international de recherche sur les politiques alimentaires et Forum pour la recherche agricole en Afrique
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Rapport de synthèse: Séminaires Techniques Sous-Régionaux du Projet ASTI

Conservation, diffusion et analyse des données afférentes à la R&D agricole en Afrique subsaharienne

L’équipe du projet Indicateurs relatifs aux sciences et aux technologies agricoles (ASTI) souhaite remercier tous les participants des séminaires techniques de leur engagement et de leurs contributions hautement constructives, ainsi que de leurs commentaires à propos d’une version préliminaire du présent rapport.

Auteurs: 
J. Roseboom
Année: 
2011
Cover image: 
Publié par: 
ASTI/Institut international de recherche sur les politiques alimentaires
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