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Tanzania

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TZA
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Tanzanie
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Tanzania
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DRD/TARI

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Tanzania: ASTI–DRD Country Factsheet

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Nienke Beintema, Deogratias Lwezuara, and Bernadetha Munishi

Year:
2016

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute and Department of Research and Development

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Tanzania

Further information

Serious underinvestment

Volatility in yearly government and donor funding caused agricultural research spending to fluctuate during 2000–2014 and decline from 2010, despite additional funding from a World Bank loan through EAAPP. Underinvestment in agricultural R&D is serious. As of 2014, funding levels appeared to be rebounding, but Tanzania still only invested 0.29 percent of its AgGDP in agricultural R&D, well below the African Union and the United Nation’s recommended 1 percent target.

Serious capacity constraints

DRD and TALIRI struggled to attract and retain well-qualified staff during 2000–2014. New recruits—even those with PhD degrees—lacked experience, and most senior researchers were approaching retirement age. Both agencies contracted retired researchers to mentor the new recruits short-term, but this strategy ultimately failed due to insufficient project funding and lack of clear guidelines and assessment criteria for mentors. DRD and TALIRI both need solid training and mentorship plans, backed by government support.

DRD’s funding challenges

Agricultural R&D spending at DRD was low and declining during 2008–2014 (adjusted for inflation). The completion of phase 1 of the Agricultural Sector Development Program prompted withdrawal of donor funding, leaving little available for research. Longterm under-investment means infrastructure at DRD and TALIRI is outdated and poorly maintained. The agencies are now even more dependent on government support, especially given uncertainty around phase II of EAAPP.

Transformation of DRD

In efforts to increase administrative flexibility, funding diversity, competitiveness, and effectiveness, Tanzania made the decision to transform its government agricultural and livestock research departments into semiautonomous bodies. TALIRI was established for livestock research in 2012 and the bill to establish TARI was approved by Parliament in September 2016. This is an important step based on current financial and human resource capacity constraints.

Tanzania: ASTI–DRD Country Factsheet

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Beintema, Nienke; Lwezaura, Deogratias and Rahija, Michael

Year:
2013

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); and Department of Research and Development (DRD)

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Tanzania

National agricultural R&D spending increased by 5 percent during 2008–2011, primarily due to increased government support; nonetheless, spending as a share of agricultural GDP remained fairly constant.

Although the national number of BSc-qualified researchers increased by 20 percent during 2008–2011, substantially increasing Tanzania’s total number of researchers, the number of researchers with PhD qualifications declined by 20 FTEs during this timeframe.

In 2010 steps were taken to transform DRD and DRTE from government divisions to semiautonomous bodies in order to provide greater flexibility in recruitment, funding, and operating procedures. DRTE became TALIRI in 2012 and DRD is expected to become the Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute by the end of 2013.

Benchmarking Agricultural Research Investment and Capacity Indicators Across Southern African Countries

Total investments in public agricultural R&D in the Southern African countries included in this study increased slightly from the 1990s to 2008. Overall, the 2001–08 investment growth in these countries was lower than average growth in other subregions of the continent. With the exception of Tanzania, public research spending growth stagnated or was negative. However, agricultural research in the middle-income countries of South Africa, Mauritius, Namibia, and Botswana was comparatively well-funded by their national governments. These countries outperformed other subregions, as well as neighboring lower income countries, in many key areas. They are less dependent on donor contributions and development bank loans than are the subregion’s low-income countries which have been subject to funding volatility associated with fluctuating allocations and disbursement schedules.

Overall agricultural research staffing in the SADC countries has also grown slightly since the 1990s, but not as much as countries in other subregions of Africa. Corresponding to the high agricultural investment intensity ratios, the middle- income countries have high ratios of agricultural researchers to agricultural laborers. South Africa in particular leads the subregion with its well-established agricultural research agencies and universities. In 2008, South Africa employed the highest share of PhD-qualified research staff among the SADC countries (46 percent).

Strengthening research capacity continues to be a challenge in most of the Southern African countries, and the lack of local PhD programs particularly limits training in Botswana and Namibia. Agricultural researchers in Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe are among the least highly qualified in SSA given that about half are qualified to the BSc level only. Other countries, such as Madagascar and Tanzania, employ an aging pool of researchers as a consequence of long-term government recruitment freezes, so recently recruited staff are young, less qualified, and often have limited training opportunities.

Tanzania: ASTI–DRD Country Brief

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Beintema, Nienke M.; Ngahulira, Thomas M.; Kirway, Timothy N.

Year:
2003

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR); and Department of Research and Development (DRD)

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Tanzania

Agricultural research in Tanzania follows the regional pattern of high dependency on donor funding. Yet even with the high donor support, agricultural research investments per researcher and as a share of AgGDP remain very low, in part because government employees earn very low salaries relative to their colleagues at nongovernmental organizations or in other countries.

Recent institutional developments focused on increasing DRD’s efficiency, which (among other measures) included downsizing, privatizing tea and coffee research, and instituting new funding sources and allocation mechanisms such as the ZARFS.

Tanzania: ASTI–DRD Country Note

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Flaherty, Kathleen; Lwezaura, Deogratias

Year:
2010

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); and Department of Research and Development (DRD)

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Tanzania

Agricultural R&D expenditures in Tanzania rose significantly in 2008 after many years of relatively low investment. That year, investment reached 31 billion Tanzanian shillings or 78 million PPP dollars (both in 2005 constant prices) compared with a low of 12 billion shillings or 29 million PPP dollars in 2005. Prior to 2005, spending was highly dependent on donor funding, which fluctuated considerably from year to year. Donor funding plummeted after the 2004 conclusion of a large-scale World Bank loan-funded project. Thereafter the Tanzanian government made a clear policy commitment to the agricultural sector and agricultural research, increasing its funding over time to bridge the gap. In 2009, a government initiative was launched with high-level political support to develop the country’s agricultural sector. Under this initiative, public research investment is expected to increase to 1 percent of GDP across all research sectors, meaning that agriculture and livestock research would receive 60 percent of the 30 billion shillings allocated to research for fiscal year 2010/11 (in current prices). Also, effective July 2010, the government reformed the conditions of researchers’ service by increasing their salaries by more than 80 percent.

DRD and DRTE are the main agricultural research agencies in Tanzania and together they account for well over half of the country’s agricultural research expenditures and research staffing. Expanded capacity in the higher education sector has strengthened the role of universities in the performance of public agricultural R&D. Capacity growth, however, has not been accompanied by improved researcher qualifications. A dearth of training programs, along with a hiring freeze from 1992 to 2002, has resulted in a lack of well-qualified senior staff. Additional issues, such as the need for infrastructure maintenance and development, and the lack of timely and complete disbursement of budgeted funding, pose constraints to effective research. While investment levels appear to be following a positive trend, many years of underinvestment in agricultural research in Tanzania have taken their toll on the country’s agricultural research agencies. Rectifying these issues will require time and ongoing commitment.


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