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Sudan

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Soudan
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Sudán
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ARC

Sudan: ASTI—ARC Country Factsheet

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Gert-Jan Stads, Abdalla Ibrahim Elhagwa, and Raed Badwan

Year:
2013

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); and Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC)

Publication category

West Asia and North Africa

Related country page(s)
Sudan

During 2008–2012, Sudan’s total public agricultural R&D spending fell by 40 percent (in inflation-adjusted terms), largely driven by sharp declines at ARC and ARRC.

In 2011 Sudan invested only 0.19 percent of its agricultural GDP in agricultural R&D, giving it one of the lowest agricultural research intensity ratios in Africa.

Sudan’s key agricultural research challenges in the coming years will be its ability to produce high- quality research and averting the erosion of its agricultural research capacity, given that increasing numbers of experienced senior scientists who were trained abroad begin to retire and are replaced with locally trained junior scientists.

Sudan: ASTI–ARC Country Brief

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Beintema, Nienke M.; Faki, Hamid H. M.

Year:
2003

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR); and Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC)

Publication category

West Asia and North Africa

Related country page(s)
Sudan

Strengthening Sudan’s agricultural research system is a key component in addressing the country’s increasing food insecurity and poverty. Nevertheless, public agricultural R&D spending has decreased over the past 30 years because of declining (and instable) government  contributions to agricultural research combined with the completion of two FAO-executed projects, a third project, ARTEP, funded through a World Bank loan, and discontinuation of funding related in cooperation with ICARDA. Moreover, actual government funding to agricultural
research has fallen far short of approved budget allocations.

Notwithstanding, Sudan’s total number of agricultural researchers has increased during the past three decades, but this was mainly the result of the creation of new universities with agricultural science faculties. Despite the increasing numbers, the quality of staff in terms of  postgraduate qualifications has deteriorated.
Like other countries in the region, and developing countries in general, whose economies depend on the agriculture sector, recognition of the importance of agricultural R&D and the inherent need for adequate and stable R&D funding is vital.

Sudan: ASTI–ARC Country Note

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Stads, Gert-Jan; El-Siddig, Kamal

Year:
2010

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); and Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC)

Publication category

West Asia and North Africa

Related country page(s)
Sudan

Large-scale oil production and ensuing economic growth led to widespread neglect of Sudan’s agricultural sector for much of the 1990s and early 2000s. This, in combination with a donor embargo on  development assistance from 1997, caused agricultural R&D investments to drop precipitously during this period. It was not until very recently that the national government launched a number of reforms to revive the country’s agricultural sector. These reforms have had a positive effect on agricultural R&D investment levels, which more than doubled during 2001–08.
In 2008, the country as a whole invested 55 million Sudanese pounds or 52 million dollars on agricultural R&D (both amounts in 2005 PPP  prices). But despite this remarkable growth, Sudan’s public agricultural R&D spending as a share of the country’s AgGDP remains among Africa’s lowest.

Public agricultural R&D capacity levels have also shown a steady  increase since the turn of the millennium, reaching 1,020 researchers in 2008. The higher education sector in particular has intensified its agricultural R&D activities over the past two decades. Despite overall capacity increases, average degree levels of ARC staff have consistently deteriorated since the 1980s.
During 2004–09, the Corporation lost more than 60 PhD-qualified researchers, mainly due to retirement. These senior, foreign-trained scientists have typically been replaced with locally trained, junior staff holding BSc and, in some cases, MSc degrees. This has created knowledge gaps and doubts as to the quality of future R&D outputs. Postgraduate training opportunities abroad are limited, and although recent initiatives have been established to introduce postgraduate training for researchers employed at ARC and ARRC, the need for intensive recruitment and high-quality training of junior scientists will continue to be an important strategic objective for Sudan’s agricultural R&D sector if the country is to overcome its current capacity crisis.

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