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Mali

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MLI
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French: 
Mali
Spanish: 
Malí
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Main Agency Acronym(s): 
IER

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Mali : ASTI–IER Fiche d’information

Lourde dépendance financière

Auteurs: 
Léa Vicky Magne Domgho, Ouleymatou Traoré et Gert-Jan Stads
Année: 
2017
Cover image: 
Publié par: 
Institut international de recherche sur les politiques alimentaires et Institut d’Économie Rurale
Autres langues - English: 
Publication Region: 
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Mali: ASTI–IER Country Factsheet

ASTI publicaiton cover

Other languages:
Version française

Authors:
Léa Vicky Magne Domgho, Ouleymatou Traoré, and Gert-Jan Stads

Year:
2017

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute and Institute of Rural Economics

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Mali

Strong donor dependency

Agricultural research in Mali is among the most donordependent in Africa. Strong reliance on short-term projects funded by donors and development banks, combined with modest levels of public funding, have driven significant fluctuations in agricultural research spending over time. Events like the 2012 military coup and unrest in the country’s north—which prompted a temporary freeze on aid—highlight the country’s vulnerability to funding shocks and, hence, its need to diversify its sources of agricultural research funding.

Severe underinvestment

In 2000, Mali invested 1 percent of its AgGDP in agricultural research, the minimum recommended by the United Nations and the African Union, but by 2014 spending had fallen to just 0.38 percent of AgGDP. Increased government funding is needed, not only to cover the cost of salaries, but also to allow sufficient funding for the day-to-day running of research programs, as well as necessary investments in infrastructure. Creative mechanisms should be explored to stimulate private-sector research funding beyond the cotton industry.

Aging pool of researchers

With 87 percent of its PhD-qualified researchers in their 50s and 60s, Mali has one of the oldest pools of agricultural researchers in Africa. As a result, large-scale capacity losses are imminent due to retirement. WAAPP has supported significant training of young researchers in recent years. However, more recruitment and training is needed, as are mechanisms to motivate and maintain staff over time.

Low female participation

Women constitute the majority of Mali’s farmers, yet only 15 percent of the country’s agricultural researchers are female. Since women offer different insights and perspectives to address the unique and pressing challenges of Mali’s farmers, it is important that the country focus on improving the gender balance—both among its agricultural researchers and its research managers—in order to more effectively address the breadth of priorities and challenges facing its farmers.

Mali : ASTI–IER Fiche d’information

Les fortes fluctuations annuelles des dépenses et des capacités en ressources humaines sont imputables à la modicité du financement public et à la brièveté des projets d’aide au développement, qui rend lourdement tributaires les organismes de recherche agricole malien.

Bien que le taux d’intensité de la recherche agricole malienne soit supérieur à la moyenne enregistrée en Afrique subsaharienne (0,61 % contre 0,51 %), il se situe toujours bien en-deçà de l’objectif de 1 % que recommandent le NEPAD et l’Organisation des Nations Unies.

Auteurs: 
Gert-Jan Stads, Aliou Maïga et Léa Vicky Magne Domgho
Année: 
2014
Cover image: 
Autres langues - English: 
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Mali: ASTI–IER Country Factsheet

ASTI publicaiton cover

Other languages:
Version française

Authors:
Gert-Jan Stads, Aliou Maïga, and Léa Vicky Magne Domgho

Year:
2014

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute and Institute of Rural Economics (IER)

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Mali

Strong dependence on short-term projects funded by donors and development banks, combined with modest levels of public funding, have caused considerable yearly fluctuations in both agricultural research expenditures and human resource capacity over time.

Although Mali’s 2011 agricultural research intensity ratio (0.61 percent) was higher than the average for Africa south of the Sahara (0.51 percent), it still falls well below the recommended 1-percent target set by NEPAD and the United Nations.

The aging of agricultural research staff, many of whom will reach retirement age in the next decade, is a major cause for concern.

Mali: Abrégé de l'ASTI

Au Mali, à partir du début des années 90, l’effectif des chercheurs agricoles a diminué progressivement, mais les dépenses consacrées à la recherche sont restées stables, essentiellement du fait de la permanence de versements de fonds suffisants de la part de donateurs.

Auteurs: 
Stads, Gert-Jan; Kouriba, Aly
Année: 
2004
Cover image: 
Publié par: 
Institut International de Recherche sur les Politiques Alimentaires (IFPRI); et Institut d’Économie Rurale (IER)
Autres langues - English: 
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Language: 

Mali: ASTI-IER Note de Pays

Au Mali, malgré tous les efforts que les autorités ont faits ces dernières décennies pour promouvoir le développement agricole, la R&D agricole reste largement  tributaire de l’aide accordée par des bailleurs de fonds et des banques de développement, notamment dans le cadre des projets successifs dirigés par la Banque mondiale, par le gouvernement des Pays-Bas et par la Fondation Syngenta.

Auteurs: 
Stads,Gert-Jan; Maïga, Aliou
Année: 
2011
Cover image: 
Publié par: 
Institut International de Recherche sur les Politiques Alimentaires (IFPRI); et Institut d’Économie Rurale (IER)
Autres langues - English: 
Countries: 
Publication Region: 
Language: 

Mali: ASTI–IER Country Brief

ASTI publicaiton cover

Other languages:
Version française

Authors:
Stads, Gert-Jan; Kouriba, Aly

Year:
2004

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); and Rural Economy Institute (IER)

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Mali

Since the beginning of the 1990s, agricultural researcher numbers have gradually fallen in Mali, but agricultural spending has remained stable, mainly as a result of the continuously adequate levels of donor funding.
During 1991–2001, IER was strongly dependent on two donor projects: PNRA—funded by World Bank loans, counterpart funding from the Government of Mali and IER itself, as well as various foreign donors—and PAPIER—funded by the Dutch government. These projects have brought important institutional changes to IER and have considerably improved the quality of its research programs. PNRA was immediately followed by another World Bank project: PASAOP. This project is currently in its first phase (of three), and despite its unsound start, the project’s principal objectives are expected to be reached, and the second and third phases of the project are likely to be implemented, securing stable funding for IER and LCV in the years to come.

During 1991–2001, Malian agricultural research was characterized by a significant improvement of the education levels of researchers and efficient operation in regional and international partnerships. Mali outperformed its neighbors in many key indicator areas. The country also distinguishes itself from many African countries in having an extremely centralized agricultural research system. One single agency (IER) is responsible for 85 percent of the country’s total agricultural
researchers and expenditures.

Mali: ASTI–IER Country Note

ASTI publicaiton cover

Other languages:
Version française

Authors:
Stads, Gert-Jan; Maïga, Aliou

Year:
2011

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); and Rural Economy Institute (IER)

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Related country page(s)
Mali

Although the political authorities have taken great pains to promote agricultural development during the past few decades, Mali’s R&D remains largely dependent on the support provided by donors and development banks, in particular through a series of projects led by the World Bank, the Netherlands government, and the Syngenta Foundation. During 2001–08, this dependence on short-term foreign aid projects combined with modest levels of public funding led to considerable annual fluctuations in both research expenditures and research capacity. It also brought financial uncertainty to the country’s R&D agencies. In 2008, Mali’s investments totaled approximately 5.9 billion CFA francs, or 24.6 million PPP dollars, both in 2005 constant prices and the country’s overall staff total stood at 313 FTE researchers (including the many contract researchers whose status differs from that of the state-employed “fonctionnaires”).

A number of donor-supported training programs played a crucial role in increasing IER’s number of PhD-qualified researchers, from 41 FTEs in 2001 to 61 FTEs in 2008. In the higher-education sector, the overall level of qualifications of the scientific staff also rose. At the time of writing, the average age of IER’s research staff exceeds the 50-year mark, notwithstanding the fact that many of its contract employees recently joined the pool of state employed researchers. In a few years from now, this reality will prove to constitute a major hurdle, as an increasing number of highly qualified and experienced researchers are due to retire. Recruiting and training young researchers is, therefore, a matter of utmost urgency if Mali wishes to maintain a critical mass of agricultural scientists.

In term of agricultural policies, several recent initiatives— such as the change of not only IER’s status but also that of its researchers, as well as the 2006 adoption of a framework law, LOA—leave room for hope that Mali’s authorities will be assigning an ever-higher priority to agricultural R&D. Nevertheless, as long as the national government is not committed to financing agricultural R&D in a more intensive and sustainable way, it remains to be seen whether Mali will succeed in leading a successful and effective battle against hunger and poverty.

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