• Eritrea’s overall agricultural research and development (R&D) expenditures contracted by more than 80 percent during 1998–2008, following severe cuts in donor funding, which nonetheless remains the country’s most important funding source. • In contrast, agricultural research staffing levels nearly tripled in Eritrea during 1998–2008 with the graduation of a large number of BSc students from Hamelmalo Agricultural College (HAC), which was established in 2005. Many of these new recruits were young and an increasingly proportion female.
During 2008–2012, Sudan’s total public agricultural R&D spending fell by 40 percent (in inflation-adjusted terms), largely driven by sharp declines at ARC and ARRC. In 2011 Sudan invested only 0.19 percent of its agricultural GDP in agricultural R&D, giving it one of the lowest agricultural research intensity ratios in Africa. Sudan’s key agricultural research challenges in the coming years will be its ability to produce high-quality research and averting the erosion of its agricultural research capacity, given that increasing numbers of experienced senior scientists who were train
Agricultural research and development (R&D) expenditures in Benin have gradually increased reflecting enhanced government funding and larger involvement in agricultural R&D by the higher education sector.Benin’s National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRAB) is the country’s main agricultural R&D agency. INRAB’s research capacity shows a decrease since 2000. The institute’s difficulty in maintaining qualified staff is directly related to the large gap with salaries offered by universities and international organizations.