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 • Eritrea’s overall agricultural research and development (R&D) expenditures contracted by more than 80 percent during 1998–2008, following severe cuts in donor funding, which nonetheless remains the country’s most important funding source. • In contrast, agricultural research staffing levels nearly tripled in Eritrea during 1998–2008 with the graduation of a large number of BSc students from Hamelmalo Agricultural College (HAC), which was established in 2005. Many of these new recruits were young and an increasingly proportion female.

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ERI
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MLI
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During 2008–2012, Sudan’s total public agricultural R&D spending fell by 40 percent (in inflation-adjusted terms), largely driven by sharp declines at ARC and ARRC. In 2011 Sudan invested only 0.19 percent of its agricultural GDP in agricultural R&D, giving it one of the lowest agricultural research intensity ratios in Africa. Sudan’s key agricultural research challenges in the coming years will be its ability to produce high-quality research and averting the erosion of its agricultural research capacity, given that increasing numbers of experienced senior scientists who were train

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SDN
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 Agricultural research and development (R&D) expenditures in Benin have gradually increased reflecting enhanced government funding and larger involvement in agricultural R&D by the higher education sector.Benin’s National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRAB) is the country’s main agricultural R&D agency. INRAB’s research capacity shows a decrease since 2000. The institute’s difficulty in maintaining qualified staff is directly related to the large gap with salaries offered by universities and international organizations.

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BEN
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COG
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GAB
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NGA
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NER
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