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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Nigeria

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Nigeria (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Nigeria-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative, the Farm and Infrastructure Foundation (FIF), and the Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria (ARCN). Based on data collected by ASTI, FIF, and ARCN, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Nigerian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1971, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI in 2001 - 03.

B. Financial resources

This section provides detailed quantitative information on agricultural research expenditures and sources of funding in the government sector in Nigeria for the period 2001 - 08. Supplementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), human resources (Section C), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table B1–Total spending levels in million 2005 Nigerian naira at various agencies, 2008

In 2008, the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) accounted for the largest share of expenditures of any single agency, at 2.0 billion 2005 Nigerian nairas. The National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), the National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), the National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR), and the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) followed, reporting expenditures of 1.2 billion 2005 nairas each. The National Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR) and the Projects Development Institute (PRODA) are the two largest agencies in the other government category, reporting expenditures of 0.9 and 0.8 billion 2005 nairas, respectively.

 

Table B1–Total spending levels in million 2005 Nigerian naira at various agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Expenditures for the 66 higher education agencies were estimated. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Nigeria country page on ASTI's website at www.asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/datacoverage. For full agency names see www.asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/agencies.

Figure B1–NARI's spending by cost-category adjusted for inflation, 2001 - 08

From 2001 to 2008, spending on salaries decreased in both absolute and relative terms at the 15 National Agricultural Research Institute (NARIs). In 2001, salaries accounted for more than 60 percent of spending compared to 43 percent in 2008. This was the direct result of increased capital investments on new facilities and rehabilitation of old facilities as well as higher operating costs.

Figure B1–NARI's spending by cost-category adjusted for inflation, 2001 - 08

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.
Notes: Salaries exclude those of expatriate staff. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Nigeria country page on ASTI's website at www.asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/datacoverage.

Figure B2–Other government agencies' spending by cost-category adjusted for inflation, 2001 - 08

The share of salaries in total spending at the seven other government agencies also declined during 2001 - 08, but at a lesser extent. In 2008 the salary share was 51 percent compared to 60 percent in 2001. This was also the direct result of increased capital investment costs.

Figure B2–Other government agencies' spending by cost-category adjusted for inflation, 2001 - 08

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.
Notes Salaries exclude those of expatriate staff.

Figure B3–Distribution of spending by cost category across government agencies, 2008

The allocation of funds for salaries, operating and program costs, and capital investments varied widely across agencies. In 2008, the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) spent the largest portion of its budget on salaries, at 93 percent, although this was an increase over the average of 73 percent in prior years. In contrast, capital investments accounted for 75 percent of the Projects Development Institute's (PRODA) total spending. NIFFR and NCRI also spent large shares on capital at 69 percent and 68 percent, respectively.

Figure B3–Distribution of spending by cost category across government agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute, Farm and Infrastructure Foundation, and Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria. Sections of this Data in Focus sheet may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgement to, IFPRI, FIF, and ARCN. The Data in Focus sheet has been prepared as an output for the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI, FIF, or ARCN.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Nigeria

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Nigeria (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Nigeria-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative, the Farm and Infrastructure Foundation (FIF), and the Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria (ARCN). Based on data collected by ASTI, FIF, and ARCN, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Nigerian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1971, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI in 2001 - 03.

Long-Term Trends

This section provides detailed quantitative information on long-term investment and capacity trends in Nigerian public agricultural R&D for the period 1971 - 2008. Subsequent sections present detailed data on financial resources (Section B), human resources (Section C), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Figure A1–Public agricultural R&D spending adjusted for inflation, 1971 - 2008

Public spending on agricultural research and development (R&D) in Nigeria varied considerably over the period 1971 - 2008. During the 1970s, expenditures were generally higher than in the following two decades. The early 1980s saw a sharp decline and agricultural R&D spending remained low until the mid - 1990s. In 1997, expenditures began to grow dramatically as a result of increased salary levels of government and university staff combined with increasing government contributions to agricultural research. In 2008, Nigeria spent 23.6 billion naira or 391.8 million PPP dollars (in 2005 prices).

Figure A1–Public agricultural R&D spending adjusted for inflation, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Nigeria country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/nigeria.

Figure A2–Public agricultural R&D spending in current Nigerian naira, 1991 - 2008

Public agricultural R&D spending increased rapidly when expressed in current prices. Fluctuations were less pronounced than in inflation-adjusted prices (see Figure A1).

Figure A2–Public agricultural R&D spending in current Nigerian naira, 1991 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Nigeria country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/nigeria.

Table A1–Public agricultural research spending, 1971 - 2008

Total spending on public agricultural R&D during 2006 - 08 averaged 20.0 billion naira or 332.3 million PPP dollars per year, well above the levels recorded in the 1970s and 1980s. During 1991 - 95, spending was three times lower than during 2006 - 08.

Table A1–Public agricultural research spending, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Expenditures for the 66 higher education agencies were estimated. Calculations are based on five-year averages, with the exception of 2006 - 08–a three-year average.

Figure A3–Shares of agricultural R&D spending by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

During 2006 - 08, the 15 National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) combined accounted for 49 percent of Nigeria's total agricultural R&D spending, compared with 70 percent in the early 1970s. This decline was the result of relatively higher increases in expenditures at other government and higher education agencies. The higher education sector's spending share increased from 14 percent in the early 1970s to 40 percent in 2006 - 08.

FigFigure A3–Shares of agricultural R&D spending by institutional category, 1971 - 2008ure

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five-year averages, with the exception of 2006 - 08–a three-year average.

Table A2–Annual rates of R&D spending growth by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Annual growth rates of agricultural R&D spending fluctuated by year and across agency groupings in line with absolute expenditure trends (see Figure A1). After a period of strong growth during 1971 - 76, yearly growth sharply dropped, stagnated, or was negative until the late-90s. During 1996 - 2001, the annual growth rate reached 25 percent followed by another period of stagnation before benefitting from a high growth rate of 16 percent during 2006 - 08. During this period, the NARIs experienced a combined annual growth rate of 12 percent compared with a combined growth rate of 31 percent for the other government agencies. However, large variations were reported across the various government and higher education agencies.

Table A2–Annual rates of R&D spending growth by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Expenditures for the 66 higher education agencies were estimated. Annual growth rates were calculated using the least-squares regression method. See asti.cgiar.org/nigeria for more information.

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Figure A4–Public agricultural research staff in full-time equivalents, 1971 - 2008

The total number of agricultural researchers employed in Nigeria more than quadrupled from 337 full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers in 1971 to 2,062 FTEs in 2008. The majority of this increase took place in the higher education sector.

Figure A4–Public agricultural research staff in full-time equivalents, 1971 - 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Table A3–Public agricultural research staffing in full-time equivalents, 1971 - 2008

Disaggregated data illustrate that Nigeria's research capacity has been strengthened over time. Total researcher numbers increased from an average 448 FTEs in the early 1970s to 1,816 FTEs during 2006 - 08.

Table A3–Public agricultural research staffing in full-time equivalents, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five-year averages, with the exception of 2006 - 08–a three-year average.

Figure A5–Shares of public agricultural R&D staff numbers by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Due to the increased role of other government and higher education agencies in Nigerian agricultural R&D over time, the NARIs' share in total research staffing (in FTEs) declined from an average of 68 percent during 1971 - 75 to 44 percent during 2006 - 08. During the latter period the higher education agencies accounted for 40 percent of researchers, and other government agencies accounted for the remaining 16 percent.

Figure A5–Shares of public agricultural R&D staff numbers by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five-year averages, with the exception of 2006 - 08–a three-year average.

Table A4–Annual rates of growth in R&D staff numbers by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Overall, the average rate of growth of agricultural R&D staff was positive throughout the entire period. The total number of researchers grew by 5 percent per year during 2001 - 06 and 12 percent per year during 2006 - 08. During the latter period, the National Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) experienced the highest growth rate of 39 percent per year.

Table A4–Annual rates of growth in R&D staff numbers by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Annual growth rates were calculated using the least-squares regression method.

Table A5–Various agricultural research intensity ratios, 1971 - 2008

Total public spending on agricultural research as a percentage of agricultural output (AgGDP)–known as the research intensity ratio–followed the spending trends described in Figure A1 and Table A2. The agricultural intensity ratio sharply declined during the 1980s before peaking during 2006-08 at an average of $0.38 for every $100 of agricultural output. The average number of FTE researchers per million farmers and per million population steadily grew over the entire period.

Table A5–Various agricultural research intensity ratios, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10; Beintema and Ayoola 2004; FAO 2009; World Bank 2010.
Notes: Calculations are based on five-year averages, with the exception of 2006 - 08–a three-year average. Research spending as a share of AgGDP is calculated using a weighted average. Farmers are defined as population economically active in agriculture, an FAO classification. Pre-1980 data on farmer number were not available.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute, Farm and Infrastructure Foundation, and Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria . Sections of this Data in Focus sheet may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgement to, IFPRI, FIF, and ARCN. The Data in Focus sheet has been prepared as an output for the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI, FIF, or ARCN.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Ethiopia

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Ethiopia (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Ethiopia-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR). Based on data collected by ASTI and EIAR, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Ethiopian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1971, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and EIAR in 2003–04.

D. Research Allocation across Commodities and Themes

This section provides detailed quantitative information on Ethiopian public agricultural research allocation for 2008. Complementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), financial resources (Section B), and human resources (Section C). Further supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

This table presents full-time equivalent (FTEs) researcher numbers by major commodity area both in absolute and relative terms. In 2008, the largest number of researchers (661 FTEs) focused on crop research. Of the remaining researchers, 166 FTEs focused on livestock, 96 on natural resources, 55 on forestry research, and 26 on fisheries research. The other 161 researchers concentrated their efforts on socioeconomic research, agricultural engineering, or other matters.

Table D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Research focus data were not available for the higher education agencies.

Figure D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

Crop research dominated the focus of agricultural research in Ethiopia, accounting for 61 percent of all FTE researchers employed at EIAR and 53 percent of those at the regional agricultural research institutes (RARIs) in 2008. Comparatively more researchers focused on livestock at the RARIs (18 percent) than at the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) (10 percent). At EIAR, 7 percent of researchers focused on natural resources, 6 percent focused on forestry, and 3 percent focused on fisheries. At the RARIs, 9 percent of researchers focused on natural resources, 3 percent focused on forestry, and 2 percent focused on fisheries.

Figure D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Research focus data were not available for the higher education agencies.

Table D2–Focus of crop and livestock research by major item, 2008

In 2008, the most researched crop in Ethiopia–employing 126 FTE researchers and representing 13 percent of total (combined) crop and livestock research, was wheat. Other important crops were maize (7 percent); sorghum, vegetables, barley, and potatoes (5 percent each); and coffee (4 percent). The country's livestock researchers primarily concentrated on dairy, sheep and goats, and beef. RARIs conducted research into a variety of commodities. All of these agencies except the Somali Region Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Research Institute (SoRPARI) reported conducting research on at least 10 different commodities in 2008. The Gambela Agricultural Research Institute (GARI) allocated the largest share of researchers to a single crop (26 percent to maize).

Table D2–Focus of crop and livestock research by major item, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Research focus data were not available for the higher education agencies.

Table D3–Focus of crop and livestock research by major theme, 2008

This table shows FTE researchers by thematic area in absolute and relative terms. Crop genetic improvement is an important research theme in Ethiopia, accounting for 480 of the 1,163 FTE researchers (41 percent) employed at EIAR and the RARIs in 2008 combined. Livestock genetic improvement and soils were other important thematic areas of research, accounting for 12 and 10 percent of the agricultural researchers at the eight agencies, respectively. Large variations were, however, reported across agencies: for example, 25 percent of researchers at the Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute (ARARI) focused on natural resources research, whereas only 2 percent of researchers at Afar Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Research Institute (APARI) worked in this area.

Table D3–Focus of crop and livestock research by major theme, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Research focus data were not available for the higher education agencies.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute and Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgment to, IFPRI and EIAR. The Data in Focus series is an output of the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or EIAR.


Back to: In-Focus page

Back to: Country page

ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Ethiopia

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Ethiopia (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Ethiopia-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR). Based on data collected by ASTI and EIAR, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Ethiopian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1971, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and EIAR in 2003–04.

C. Human Resources

This section provides detailed quantitative information on trends in full-time equivalent (FTE) agricultural research and support staff, including qualifications, gender and age distribution, and support-staff-per-researcher ratios. Complementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), financial resources (Section B), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table C1–Total researcher numbers across various agencies, 2008

This table presents numbers and shares of full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers across agencies in 2008. The Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) accounted for the largest share of agricultural R&D capacity in Ethiopia, at 42 percent. The next-largest agency in terms of FTE researchers–the Oromia Agricultural Research Institute (OARI)–employed 172 FTE researchers, representing 13 percent of the country's total agricultural R&D capacity. In 2008, the combined researcher capacity of the seven RARIs was higher than that of EIAR.

Table C1–Total researcher numbers across various agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Ethiopia's country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/ethiopia/datacoverage. For full agency names see asti.cgiar.org/ethiopia/agencies.

Figure C1–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at EIAR by degree, 1997–2008

The number of researchers at EIAR steadily increased from 1997 onward, peaking at 646 FTEs in 2005 and declining thereafter. In 2008, EIAR employed 550 FTE researchers of which 22 percent were PhD qualified; 45 percent, MSc qualified; and 40 percent, BSc qualified.

Figure C1–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at EIAR by degree, 1997–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003 and ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.
Note: EIAR was known as the Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO) until it was renamed in 2005.

Figure C2–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at the RARIs by degree, 1997–2008

FTE research capacity at the regional agricultural research institutes (RARIs) more than tripled from the time of their establishment in the late-1990s (when researchers were redeployed from EIAR) until 2008. In 1998, the seven RARIs combined employed a total of 177 FTE researchers, 4 of which held PhD degrees; in 2008, this total had risen to 613 FTEs, 27 of which held PhD degrees. By 2008, the combined capacity of the seven RARIs was higher than that of EIAR in terms of researcher numbers but not postgraduate qualifications (see also Figure C1).

Figure C2–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at the RARIs by degree, 1997–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003 and ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.
Note: For a complete list of the agencies included in our sample, see asti.cgiar.org/ethiopia/agencies.

Figure C3–Distribution of researcher qualifications across various agencies, 2008

Looking at individual agencies, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Addis Ababa, Debre Zeit (FV-AAU–DZ) and Haramaya University (HU) reported the highest shares of PhD researchers (30 and 28 percent, respectively). Two agencies, the Afar Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Research Institute (APARI) and the Gambela Agricultural Research Institute (GARI), employed no PhD-qualified researchers.

Figure C3–Distribution of researcher qualifications across various agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003 and ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.

Figure C4–Female share of researchers by degree and institutional category, 2001 and 2008

Female researchers constituted an average of 7 percent of all Ethiopian agricultural research staff in 2008. At EIAR, the share of female researchers decreased slightly, from 8 percent in 2000 to 6 percent in 2008. In contrast, the share of female researchers at the higher education agencies increased from 4 to 13 percent during this timeframe. Across degree levels, the highest share of female researchers in 2008, at 7 percent, was among researchers qualified to the BSc level.

Figure C4–Female share of researchers by degree and institutional category, 2001 and 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003 and ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Gender data were not available in 2000 for the RARIs, and only FV-AAU–DZ, HU, FDANR-MU, and JCA were included in the higher education sector because 2000 data for the other agencies were not available. For a complete list of the agencies included in our sample, see asti.cgiar.org/ethiopia/agencies.

Figure C5–Distribution of researcher qualifications by gender, 2000 and 2008

This figure illustrates the relative levels of researcher qualifications by gender in 2000 and 2008. Among female researchers, the shares of PhD and MSc-qualified researchers increased. In 2008, 8 percent of female researchers held PhD degrees, and 33 percent held MSc degrees, compared with 2000, when 3 percent of female researchers held PhD degrees, and 28 percent held MSc degrees.

Figure C5–Distribution of researcher qualifications by gender, 2000 and 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003 and ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.
Note: See Figure C5 for details of sample size.

Figure C6–Female share of FTE researchers across various agencies by degree, 2008

This figure illustrates the wide variation in the shares of degree qualifications among female researchers at the various agencies in 2008. HU employed the largest share of female researchers (16 percent). Shares across government agencies were lower than those at the higher education agencies, which is a common finding across countries. Female researchers accounted for between 4 and 10 percent of researchers employed at government agencies, whereas at the higher education agencies shares were between 9 and 16 percent. Across all agencies, the majority of female researchers were qualified to the BSc-level only, with the exception of FV-AAU–DZ, where all the female researchers held MSc degrees.

Figure C6–Female share of FTE researchers across various agencies by degree, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.

Figure C7–Age distribution by institutional category and gender, 2007

This figure illustrates the distribution of researchers by age at EIAR and four of the RARIs, disaggregated by agency and gender. The majority of researchers at these agencies were under 41 years old in 2007. The RARIs employed the youngest research staff overall, with almost 60 percent being under 31 years old in 2007. Male researchers were slightly older than their female colleagues.

Figure C7–Age distribution by institutional category and gender, 2007

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–AWARD 2008/09.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Figure C8–Trends in full-time equivalent support staff at EIAR, 2001–08

The overall number of FTE support staff at EIAR–including, technicians, and administrative and other support staff–increased from 2,173 in 2001 to 2,695 in 2008. Most technicians were not degree qualified. Figure

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.

Figure C9–Support-staff-per-researcher ratios by institutional category, 2001 and 2008

The support-staff-per-researcher ratio fell marginally on average, from 3.8 in 2001 to 3.4 in 2008. That year, for every agricultural researcher, Ethiopia employed 1.5 technicians, 0.8 administrative staff, and 1.1 other support staff.

Figure C9–Support-staff-per-researcher ratios by institutional category, 2001 and 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–EIAR 2009–10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Ethiopia's country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/ethiopia/datacoverage.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute and Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgment to, IFPRI and EIAR. The Data in Focus series is an output of the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or EIAR.


Back to: In-Focus page

Back to: Country page

ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Ethiopia

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Ethiopia (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Ethiopia-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR). Based on data collected by ASTI and EIAR, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Ethiopian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1971, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and EIAR in 2003–04.

B. Financial Resources

This section provides detailed quantitative information on expenditures in Ethiopian public agricultural R&D for the period 1991–2008. Complementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), human resources (Section C), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table B1–Total spending across various agencies, 2008

In 2008, the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) accounted for the largest share of expenditures of any single agency, at 76.2 billion 2005 birr. The Oromia Agricultural Research Institute (OARI), which ranked second, reported expenditures of 17.4 billion 2005 birr. The Regional Agricultural Research Institutes (RARIs) accounted for a combined total of 40 percent agricultural R&D expenditures in 2008.

Table B1–Total spending across various agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI–EIAR 2009–10 and various financial files from EIAR.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Expenditures for the eight higher education agencies were estimated. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Ethiopia's country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/ethiopia/datacoverage. For full agency names see asti.cgiar.org/ethiopia/agencies.

Figure B1–Spending levels of EIAR by funding source, 1998–2009

EIAR's recurrent government budget spending doubled between 1998 and 2004, reflecting increased staffing levels at EIAR. Subsequently, both recurrent spending and researcher numbers fell. Government-funded capital investments were relatively high during this period. Overall, spending levels fluctuated due to two World Bank loans–the Agricultural Research and Training Project (ARTP) and the Rural Capacity Building Project (RCBP)–which provided substantial levels of funding for the rehabilitation of research infrastructure and equipment, as well as the development of human resource capacity. Donor contributions were fairly constant, but only accounted for 4 percent of total spending in 2009.

Figure B1–Spending levels of EIAR by funding source, 1998–2009

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003, ASTI 2009–10, and various financial files from EIAR.
Notes: Dates correspond to a July–June fiscal year. EIAR spending data for 1998–2005 were partly based on budget data rather than actual expenses.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute and Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgment to, IFPRI and EIAR. The Data in Focus series is an output of the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or EIAR.


Back to: In-Focus page

Back to: Country page

ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Ethiopia

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Ethiopia (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Ethiopia-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR). Based on data collected by ASTI and EIAR, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Ethiopian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1971, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and EIAR in 2003–04.

Long-Term Trends

This section provides detailed quantitative information on long-term investment and capacity trends in Ethiopian public agricultural R&D for the period 1971–2008. Subsequent sections present detailed data on financial resources (Section B), human resources (Section C), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Figure A1–Agricultural R&D spending adjusted for inflation, 1971–2008

After a period of relative stability, agricultural research and development (R&D) expenditures in Ethiopia doubled between 1993 and 2000 and then doubled again between 2000 and 2001. From 2003, however, investments began to decline, reaching 157 million birr or 70 million PPP dollars by 2008 (both in 2005 constant prices). The 2008 value of investment, although lower compared with 2001–02 levels, was still significantly higher than those of the 1990s. This was mostly the result of the growth of at regional agricultural research institutes (RARIs).

Figure A1–Agricultural R&D spending adjusted for inflation, 1971–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003, ASTI–EIAR 2009–10, and various financial files from EIAR.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Dates correspond to a July–June fiscal year. 1998–2005 spending data for EIAR were partly based on budget data rather than actual expenses. EIAR was known as the Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO) until it was renamed in 2005. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Ethiopia country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/ethiopia.

Figure A2–Agricultural R&D spending in current Ethiopian birr, 1993–2008

In current prices, fluctuations in agricultural R&D spending were less pronounced. Moreover, total agricultural R&D spending increased after 2005 in current prices, contrasting the opposite trend when prices are adjusted for inflation (see Figure A1). In 2008, Ethiopia spent 264 million current Ethiopian birr on agricultural R&D compared with 157 million birr in inflation-adjusted 2005 prices.

Figure A2–Agricultural R&D spending in current Ethiopian birr, 1993–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003, ASTI–EIAR 2009–10, and various financial files from EIAR.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Table A1–Agricultural research spending, 1971–2008

The underlying data show large increases in spending at the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), including its predecessors, with the exception of a sharp decline during the early 1990s and a more moderate decline during 2006–08. These contractions in spending resulted from reduced funding from the government and donors. Expenditures at the RARIs, which were only established in the late 1990s, rose quickly, more than tripling by 2006–08.

Table A1–Agricultural research spending, 1971–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003, ASTI–EIAR 2009–10, and various financial files from EIAR.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2006–08, a three-year average. Expenditures for the eight higher education agencies were estimated. For more information, see asti.cgiar.org/ethiopia/datacoverage.

Figure A3–Shares of agricultural R&D spending by institutional category, 1971–2008

This figure provides relative levels of public agricultural R&D spending by institutional category, in addition to the absolute values presented in Figures A1 and A2. From the early 1970s until the early 1990s, EIAR accounted for between 80 and 90 percent of total agricultural R&D expenditures. Since the decentralization of the Ethiopian agricultural research system in 1997, however, the role of the RARIs has grown from 20 percent of public agricultural R&D expenditures following their establishment in the late–1990s to 36 percent during 2006–08.

Figure A3–Shares of agricultural R&D spending by institutional category, 1971–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003, ASTI–IAR 2009–10, and various financial files from EIAR.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Shares are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2006–08, a three-year average.

Table A2–Annual rates of R&D spending growth by institutional category, 1971–2008

Yearly growth rates illustrate the aforementioned fluctuations in agricultural R&D spending. Average rates remained positive until 2001, thereafter turning sharply negative. Despite the overall negative growth during 2006–08, two of the seven RARIs–the Somali Region Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Research Institute (SoRPARI) and the Afar Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Research Institute (APARI)–experienced strong positive growth of 36 and 16 percent, respectively.

Table A2–Annual rates of R&D spending growth by institutional category, 1971–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003, ASTI–EIAR 2009–10, and various financial files from EIAR.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Yearly growth rates were calculated using the least squares regression method. Expenditures at the eight higher education agencies were estimated. For more information, see asti.cgiar.org/ethiopia/datacoverage.

Figure A4–Public agricultural research staff in full-time equivalents, 1971–2008

The total number of agricultural researchers in full-time equivalents (FTE) increased substantially, from only 60 in 1971 to 1,318 in 2008. The decrease in the number of FTE researchers at EIAR in 1997 represents the aforementioned creation of the regional RARIs.

Figure A4–Public agricultural research staff in full-time equivalents, 1971–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003, ASTI–EIAR 2009–10, AET-Africa 2010; and Mekele University 2010a and 2010b.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Dates correspond to a July–June fiscal year. EIAR was known as the Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO) until it was renamed in 2005.

Table A3–Public agricultural research staffing in full-time equivalents, 1971–2008

Disaggregated data illustrate the strengthening of human resource capacity in Ethiopia's agricultural R&D system over time. Note that declines at EIAR corresponded to the establishment of the RARIs in the late-1990s, and the associated transfer of staff. Note also that, despite the transfer of staff to the RARIs, capacity continued to grow at EIAR during 1996–2008.

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003, ASTI–EIAR 2009–10, AET-Africa 2010, and Mekele University 2010a and 2010b.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2006–08, a three-year average.

Figure A5–Shares of public agricultural R&D staff numbers by institutional category, 1971–2008

This figure shows the relative levels of FTE researchers across institutional categories. Similar to the trend in expenditures, EIAR accounted for 80 to 90 percent of agricultural R&D capacity until the late-1990s, when the RARIs were established. During 2006–08, EAIR accounted for 46 percent of total agricultural R&D capacity, the RARIs accounted for 43 percent, and the higher education sector accounted for 11 percent.

Figure A5–Shares of public agricultural R&D staff numbers by institutional category, 1971–2008Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003, ASTI–EIAR 2009–10, AET-Africa 2010, and Mekele University 2010a and 2010b.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

 

Table A4–Annual rates of growth in R&D staffing by institutional category, 1971–2008

Average yearly growth in agricultural R&D researcher numbers remained high from the mid- 1970s, and increased from the mid-1990s due to the establishment of the RARIs.

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003, ASTI–EIAR 2009–10, AET-Africa 2010, and Mekele University 2010a and 2010b.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Yearly growth rates were calculated using the least squares regression method.

Table A5–Various agricultural research intensity ratios, 1971–2008

Average agricultural R&D spending as a share of agricultural GDP (AgGDP) fluctuated between 0.13 and 0.54 percent during 1971–2008, which is in line with changing levels of AgGDP, as well as agricultural R&D investment. During 2006–08, the ratio dropped to 0.31 percent as a result of decreased agricultural R&D spending. FTE researchers per million farmers and per million population rose steadily throughout the period. Intensity ratio

Table A5–Various agricultural research intensity ratios, 1971–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from Beintema and Solomon 2003, FAO 2009, World Bank 2009, ASTI–EIAR 2009–10, AET-Africa 2010, and Mekele University 2010a and 2010b.
Notes: Calculations are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2005–08, a three-year average. Research spending as a share of AgGDP is calculated using a weighted average. Farmers are defined as the economically active agricultural population (an FAO classification). Pre-1980 data on farmer numbers were not available.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute and Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgment to, IFPRI and EIAR. The Data in Focus series is an output of the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or EIAR.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Rwanda

Data sources

Primary data were collected through three institutional survey rounds in 1984, 1993-94 (both under ISNAR’s “Indicators Series Project”), and 2008-09 (under the ASTI initiative). These data were combined with a number of secondary data sources from earlier years. See appendices and reference list in Roseboom and Pardey (1993) Download PDF.

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.
  • Salaries and living expenses of many expatriate researchers working on donor-supported projects at the (often main) agricultural research agencies are paid directly by their respective agency. The average implicit costs of expatriate R&D staff were calculated in the early 1990s (see Appendix 2 in Roseboom and Pardey 1993), and have been extrapolated to more recent years using salary averages of a few CGIAR centers.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Gabon

Data sources

Primary data were collected through two consecutive institutional survey rounds in 2003-04 and 2008-09 both under the ASTI initiative. These data were combined with a number of secondary data sources from earlier years. See appendices and reference list in Stads, Angwe, and Ngoye (2004) Download PDF.

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.
  • Salaries and living expenses of many expatriate researchers working on donor-supported projects at the (often main) agricultural research agencies are paid directly by their respective agency. The average implicit costs of expatriate R&D staff were calculated in the early 2000s (see Appendix 2 in Stads, Angwe, and Ngoye 2004), and have been extrapolated to more recent years using salary averages of a few CGIAR centers.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Burundi

Data sources

Primary data were collected through two consecutive institutional survey rounds in 2003-04 and 2008-09 both under the ASTI initiative. These data were combined with a number of secondary data sources from earlier years. See appendices and reference list in Magalhaes, Beintema, and Ndmurirwo (2003) Download PDF .

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.
  • Salaries and living expenses of many expatriate researchers working on donor-supported projects at the (often main) agricultural research agencies are paid directly by their respective agency. The average implicit costs of expatriate R&D staff were calculated in the early 1990s (see Appendix 2 Magalhaes, Beintema, and Ndmurirwo 2003), and have been extrapolated to more recent years using salary averages of a few CGIAR centers.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
South Africa

Data sources

Primary data were collected through four consecutive institutional survey rounds in 1984, 1993-94 (both under ISNAR’s “Indicators Series Project”), 2003-04, and 2008-09 (both under the ASTI initiative). These data were combined with a number of secondary data sources:

ARC (Agricultural Research Council). 2010. ARC .Financial database. Pretoria.

CeSTII (Centre for Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators). 2008. South African national survey of research & experimental development, 2007/08. Unpublished surveys. Pretoria.

DEAT (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism). 2010. Annual report 2009/10. Pretoria.

DoA (Department of Agriculture). 2009. Investigation report on the status of provincial research centers. Draft report. Pretoria.

NMMU (Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University). 2010. Department of Agriculture and Game Management. http://www.nmmu.ac.za/default.asp?id=338&bhcp=1. Accessed June 2010.

NWU (North-West University). 2010. Faculty of Agriculture, Science & Technology: School of Agricultural Sciences. http://www.uniwest.ac.za/faculties/ast/index.html. Accessed June 2010.

RSA (Republic of South Africa). 2010. Estimates of national expenditure. Pretoria: Department of Finance.

UFS (University of the Free State). 2010. Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences: Report 2008. Bloemfontein. http://natagri.ufs.ac.za/dl/user.les/Documents/00000/120_eng.pdf. Accessed December 2010.

UL (University of Limpopo). 2010. Faculty of Science and Agriculture. http://www.ul.ac.za/index.php?Entity=Faculty%20of%20Science%20and%20Agriculture. Accessed December 2010.

UNISA (University of South Africa). 2010. College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. http://www.unisa.ac.za/Default.asp?Cmd=ViewContent&ContentID=19413. Accessed June 2010.

Univen (University of Venda). 2010. School of Agriculture. http://www.univen.ac.za/index.php. Accessed December 2010.

Unizulu (University of Zululand). 2010. Faculty of Science and Agriculture. http://www.uzulu.ac.za/ Accessed December 6, 2010.

UP (University of Pretoria). 2010. Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences: Yearbook 2008. http://web.up.ac.za/site.les/File/yearbook_2008/Natural_and_Agricult_Undergrad_2008.pdf Accessed December 6, 2010.

For additional secondary sources that were used to construct the pre-1991 data series, see appendices and reference lists in Roseboom, Pardey, Sartorius von Bach and Zyl (1995) Download PDF and Liebenberg, Beintema, and Kristen (2004) Download PDF.

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.
  • Salaries and living expenses of many expatriate researchers working on donor-supported projects at the (often main) agricultural research agencies are paid directly by their respective agency. The average implicit costs of expatriate R&D staff were calculated in the early 1990s (see Appendix 2 in Roseboom, Pardey, Sartorius von Bach and Zyl 1995), and have been extrapolated to more recent years using salary averages of a few CGIAR centers.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology


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