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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Guinea

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Guinea (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Guinea-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the Guinean Agricultural Research Institute (IRAG). Based on data collected by ASTI and IRAG, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Guinea's public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1991, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI and IRAG in 2003–04.

Long-Term Trends

This section provides detailed quantitative information on long-term investment and capacity trends in Guinea's public agricultural R&D for the period 1991–2008. Subsequent sections present detailed data on financial resources (Section B), human resources (Section C), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Figure A1–Agricultural R&D spending adjusted for inflation, 1991–2008

Agricultural research and development (R&D) spending in Guinea fell by more than 70 percent during 1991–2008. In 1991, Guinea invested 13.0 billion CFA francs or 11.6 million PPP dollars compared with 3.4 billion CFA francs or 3.2 million PPP dollars (in 2005 prices). This dramatic decrease in total expenditures was mostly the result of falling expenditures at the Guinean Agricultural Research Institute (IRAG) as a result of the conclusion of large donor-funded projects.

Figure A1–Agricultural R&D spending adjusted for inflation, 1991–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see asti.cgiar.org/guinea/datacoverage. Total agency sample includes one government agency, which discontinued its research activities in 2003.

Figure A2–Agricultural R&D spending in current CFA francs, 1991–2008

The long-term trend in national agricultural R&D spending was comparatively stable in current prices, even increasing since 2004, but it did not keep pace with national inflation rates (see Figure A1).

Figure A2–Agricultural R&D spending in current CFA francs, 1991–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Table A1–Agricultural research spending, 1991–2008

The underlying data show that average spending on agricultural R&D in Guinea dropped significantly after 2000. During the 1990s, total spending levels averaged 13 billion CFA francs or 11 million PPP dollars, compared with only 4.7 billion CFA franc or 3.9 million PPP dollars during 2006–08. The average level of IRAG's 2006–08 expenditures equaled only a third of the levels recorded during the 1990s.

Table A1–Agricultural research spending, 1991–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2006–08, a three-year average. Expenditures for the eight higher education agencies were estimated. For more information, see asti.cgiar.org/guinea/datacoverage.

Figure A3–Shares of agricultural R&D spending by institutional category, 1991–2008

IRAG accounted for the largest share of expenditures over the entire period; however, other government and higher education agencies played an increasingly important role as a result of a stronger decline on IRAG's expenditures compared with the average decline at the other agencies. During 1991–95, other government agencies accounted for 16 percent of total agricultural R&D expenditures in Guinea compared with 21 percent during 2006–08. The higher education agencies also increased their share of overall expenditures from 9 percent during 1991–95 to 11 percent during 2006–08.

Figure A3–Shares of agricultural R&D spending by institutional category, 1991–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Shares are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2006–08, a three-year average.

Table A2–Annual rates of R&D spending growth by institutional category, 1991–2008

Unsurprisingly, the yearly rate of growth in public agricultural R&D spending was negative for the entire period, except during 1996–2001. The end of the World Bank–funded National Agricultural Services Project (NASP) in 2000 precipitated a sharp decline in overall expenditures. With the conclusion of this and of other donor-funded projects, yearly rates of R&D spending growth across all agency groups fell sharply, becoming negative during 2001–08. The Institut Pasteur de Guinée (IPG) was the only agency to record positive expenditure growth rates during 2006–08 (1 percent).

Table A2–Annual rates of R&D spending growth by institutional category, 1991–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Yearly growth rates were calculated using the least squares regression method. Expenditures for the eight higher education agencies were estimated. For more information, see asti.cgiar.org/guinea/datacoverage.

Figure A4–Agricultural research staffing in full-time equivalents, 1991–2008

Despite declining agricultural R&D expenditures, Guinean agricultural R&D capacity remained relatively stable. In 1991, the country employed 213 full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers, compared with 229 in 2008.

Figure A4–Agricultural research staffing in full-time equivalents, 1991–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see asti.cgiar.org/guinea/datacoverage.

Table A3–Agricultural research staffing in full-time equivalents, 1991–2008

Average researcher numbers remained relatively constant during the 1991–2008 period, ranging from low of 218 to a high of 235.

Table A3–Agricultural research staffing in full-time equivalents, 1991–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2006–08, a three-year average.

Figure A5–Shares of agricultural R&D staffing by institutional category, 1991–2008

The distribution of agricultural research staff across institutional categories changed little during 1991–2008. On average, IRAG accounted for two-thirds of all FTE researchers during 2006–08, compared with 70 percent during 1991–95. The other government and higher education agencies slightly increased their relative shares of agricultural R&D capacity, from 20 and 9 percent in 1991–95 to 21 and 12 percent during 2006–08, respectively.

Figure A5–Shares of agricultural R&D staffing by institutional category, 1991–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Table A4–Annual rates of growth in R&D staffing by institutional category, 1991–2008

Although overall yearly growth rates fluctuated little during 1991–2008, significant variations were recorded across institutional categories. Notably, the higher education agencies experienced relative high rates of growth during the early 1990s and 2006–08, whereas growth at the IRAG and other government agencies remained fairly stable throughout the period.

Table A4–Annual rates of growth in R&D staffing by institutional category, 1991–2008

Source: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Annual growth rates were calculated using the least squares regression method.

Table A5–Agricultural research intensity ratios, 1991–2008

All agricultural research intensity ratios fell dramatically during 1991–2008. Research spending as a share of agricultural gross domestic product (AgGDP) fell from $0.95 for every $100 of AgGDP to $0.36 during 2006–08. Also, the number of FTE researchers per million farmers declined by more than half–from 78 FTE researchers per million farmers in the early 1990s, to 30 FTEs during 2006–08.

Table A5–Agricultural research intensity ratios, 1991–2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from IFPRI–IRAG 2009 and Stads and Béavogui 2003.
Notes: Calculations are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2005–08, a three-year average. Research spending as a share of AgGDP is calculated using a weighted average. Farmers are defined as the economically active agricultural population (an FAO classification). Pre-1980 data on farmer data were not available.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Guinean Agricultural Research Institute (IRAG). Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgement to IFPRI and IRAG. This series is an output of the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or IRAG.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Côte d'Ivoire

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Côte d'Ivoire (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/CotedIvoire-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the National Center for Agricultural Research (CNRA). Based on data collected by ASTI and CNRA, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Ivorian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1981, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI in 2000 - 03.

D. Research Allocation across Commodities and Themes

This section provides detailed quantitative information on Ivoirian public agricultural research allocation in 2008. Complementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), financial resources (Section B), and human resources (Section C). Further supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table D1 -- Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

This table presents agricultural researcher numbers by major commodity area in absolute terms. In 2008, 62 of Côte d'Ivoire's 123 FTE agricultural researchers focused on crops. Of the remaining researchers, 15 FTEs focused on livestock, 15 focused on fisheries, 7 focused on forestry, 5 focused on natural resources, and 18 focused on other commodity areas. Commodity area

Table D1 -- Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

Source: Calculated by the authors ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Figure D1 -- Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

In relative terms, more than half of all Ivorian agricultural researchers conducted crop research. Fisheries and livestock research each accounted for 12 percent, forestry research represented 5 percent, and postharvest research 4 percent. The remaining researchers focused on food security, natural resources, socioeconomics, and other areas.

Figure D1 -- Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

Source: Calculated by the authors ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Table D2 -- Focus of crop and livestock research by major item, 2008

Cocoa, cotton, and rice are the most researched crops in Côte d'Ivoire, each representing 7 percent of the FTE researchers involved in crop and livestock research in 2008. Other important crops that year included oil palm (6 percent), bananas and plantains (5 percent), and coffee (5 percent). Swine, at 5 percent, was slightly more important than the other livestock items in 2008. Item

Table D2 -- Focus of crop and livestock research by major item, 2008

Source: Calculated by the authors ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and National Center for Agricultural Research (CNRA). Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgment to, IFPRI and CNRA. This series has been prepared as an output for the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or CNRA.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Côte d'Ivoire

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Côte d'Ivoire (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/CotedIvoire-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the National Center for Agricultural Research (CNRA). Based on data collected by ASTI and CNRA, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Ivorian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1981, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI in 2000 - 03.

C. Human Resources

This section provides detailed quantitative information on trends in full-time equivalent (FTE) agricultural research and support staff, including qualifications, gender, and support-staff-per-researcher ratios. Supplementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), financial resources (Section B), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table C1 -- Total researcher levels across various agencies, 2008

CNRA's research capacity slightly decreased during 2001 - 08, from 86 to 81 FTE researchers. This decrease was accompanied by an increase in the share of PhD-qualified researchers. In 2001, 41 percent of FTE researchers at CNRA held PhD degrees, compared with 53 percent in 2008. No researchers at CNRA held BSc degrees only during this period, but -- like other agencies in Côte d'Ivoire -- CNRA does employ technicians qualified to the BSc (or equivalent) level who are not officially classified as researchers (see Figure C5). Agency

Table C1 -- Total researcher levels across various agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Côte d'Ivoire's country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/cote-divoire/datacoverage].

Figure C1 -- Research staff trends at CNRA by degree (in full-time equivalents), 2001 - 08

CNRA's research capacity slightly decreased during 2001 - 08, from 86 to 81 FTE researchers. This decrease was accompanied by an increase in the share of PhD-qualified researchers. In 2001, 41 percent of FTE researchers at CNRA held PhD degrees, compared with 53 percent in 2008. No researchers at CNRA held BSc degrees only during this period, but -- like other agencies in Côte d'Ivoire -- CNRA does employ technicians qualified to the BSc (or equivalent) level who are not officially classified as researchers (see Figure C5).

Figure C1 -- Research staff trends at CNRA by degree (in full-time equivalents), 2001 - 08

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Notes: Research staff excludes expatriate staff working at CNRA. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Cote d'Ivoire country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/cote-divoire/datacoverage.

Figure C2 -- Full-time equivalent researcher trends at seven higher education agencies by degree, 2001 - 08

From 2001 to 2008, the number of researchers employed at the higher education agencies increased from 8 to 13 FTEs. Consistent with the trend at CNRA, researchers at higher education agencies also upgraded their qualifications during this period. The number of researchers with PhD degrees increased from 5 to 9 FTEs, the number of researchers with MSc degrees increased from 2 to 4 FTEs, and the number of BSc-qualified researchers remained more or less constant.

Figure C2 -- Full-time equivalent researcher trends at seven higher education agencies by degree, 2001 - 08

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Note: Research staff excludes the Faculty of Science and Technology under the University of Cocody-Abidjan (FAST-UAC) because data were not available.

Figure C3 -- Distribution of researcher qualifications across agencies, 2008

On average, 69 percent of researchers employed at the higher education agencies held PhD degrees. The University Abobo-Adjamé (UAA) and Oceanological Research Center (CRO) employed the highest share of PhD researchers, at 95 and 94 percent, respectively. The National Laboratory for Agricultural Development (LANADA) reported the highest share of BSc-qualified researchers at 53 percent.

Figure C3 -- Distribution of researcher qualifications across agencies, 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Figure C4 -- Share of female researchers at CNRA by degree, 2001 and 2008

The share of female researchers at CNRA increased by one percentage point during 2001 - 08 (from 9 to 10 percent), but female researchers are very much underrepresented in Ivorian agricultural R&D. Across qualification levels, the share of women increased from 10 to 13 percent among MSc-qualified researchers, and slightly decreased among PhD-qualified researchers.

Figure

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Note: CNRA was the only agency for which 2001 and 2008 gender data were available.

Figure C5 -- Trends in degree-qualified full-time equivalent researchers and technicians at the government agencies, 2004 - 08

Agricultural R&D agencies in Côte d'Ivoire employ large numbers of degree-qualified FTE technicians who are not officially classified as researchers. The number of FTE technicians at the government agencies, especially at CRO and LANADA, grew during 2004 - 08, and in 2008 CNRA, CRO, and LANADA together employed 4 FTE technicians with MSc degrees and 12 with BSc degrees.

Figure C5 -- Trends in degree-qualified full-time equivalent researchers and technicians at the government agencies, 2004 - 08

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI - CNRA 2009.

Figure C6 -- Trends in full-time equivalent support staff, 2001 - 08

Support staff numbers fell during 2001 - 08, from 2,225 to 1,960 FTEs. Of these, other support staff accounted for the largest share, at 67 percent in 2008, which is high compared with other African countries. The fact that many CNRA employees spend some of their time contributing to the Center's cocoa or coffee production schemes likely explains this discrepancy.

Figure C6 -- Trends in full-time equivalent support staff, 2001 - 08

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.

Figure C7 -- Support-staff-per-researcher ratios by institutional category, 2001 and 2008

From 2001 to 2008, overall support-staff-per-researcher ratios increased slightly from 17 to 18 FTEs -- one of the highest ratios in Sub-Saharan Africa. CNRA was responsible for this, reporting a ratio of 24 FTE support-staff-per-researcher in 2008, again most likely due to staff participation in cocoa and coffee production schemes. Unsurprisingly, the higher education agencies reported the lowest support-staff-per-researcher ratio, which is common given that research is a secondary mandate.

Figure C7 -- Support-staff-per-researcher ratios by institutional category, 2001 and 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Cote d'Ivoire country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/cote-divoire/datacoverage.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and National Center for Agricultural Research (CNRA). Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgment to, IFPRI and CNRA. This series has been prepared as an output for the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or CNRA.


Back to: In-Focus page

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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Côte d'Ivoire

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Côte d'Ivoire (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/CotedIvoire-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the National Center for Agricultural Research (CNRA). Based on data collected by ASTI and CNRA, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Ivorian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1981, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI in 2000 - 03.

B. Financial Resources

This section provides detailed quantitative information on agricultural research expenditures and government-sector funding sources in Côte d'Ivoire for the period 1999 - 2008. Supplementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), human resources (Section C), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table B1 -- Total spending levels in CFA francs at various agencies, 2008

In 2008, the National Center for Agricultural Research (CNRA) accounted for the largest share of expenditures of any single agency, at 9.5 billion CFA francs. The higher education agencies ranked second, with estimated expenditures of 2.3 billion CFA francs. Agency

Table B1 -- Total spending levels in CFA francs at various agencies, 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI - CNRA 2009; Stads and Beintema 2003.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Expenditures for the eight higher education agencies were estimated. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Côte d'Ivoire country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/cote-divoire/datacoverage. For full agency names see asti.cgiar.org/cote-divoire/datacoverage.

Figure B1 -- CNRA's spending by cost-category adjusted for inflation, 1999 - 2008

From 1999 to 2008, CNRA's total expenditures fell from 41.0 million PPP dollars or 11.8 billion CFA francs, to 33.0 million PPP dollars or 9.5 billion CFA francs. The largest yearly decline in expenditures took place during 2000 - 01. From 2002 to 2008, CNRA's expenditures stabilized, with little change across cost categories.

Figure B1 -- CNRA's spending by cost-category adjusted for inflation, 1999 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Notes: Salaries exclude those of expatriate staff. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Côte d'Ivoire country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/cote-divoire/datacoverage.

Figure B2 -- Distribution of spending by cost category at CNRA, 1999 - 2008

Cost categories remained fairly stable at CNRA for most of the period 1999 - 2008, with a spike in capital investment in 2000 and a spike in salaries in 2001.

Figure B2 -- Distribution of spending by cost category at CNRA, 1999 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.

Figure B3 -- CNRA's funding sources adjusted for inflation, 1999 - 2008

During 1999 - 2008, CNRA received funding from several sources. Limited national government funding only partially supported CNRA's operating costs, and lack of funding stability hindered the Center's capacity to plan long term. Support from donors and development banks dried-up as support from the World Bank ended. Despite these challenges, CNRA was able to maintain funding levels since producer organizations provided a share of the membership fees they had collected (see Stads and Doumbia 2010 for more information). In 2008, CNRA received 3.9 million PPP dollars or 1.1 billion CFA francs from the national government and 22.5 million PPP dollars and 6.5 billion CFA francs through a combination of the private- sector and of internally generated funding.

Figure B3 -- CNRA's funding sources adjusted for inflation, 1999 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Note: Donor funding includes the salaries of expatriate staff seconded to CNRA in the early 2000s.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and National Center for Agricultural Research (CNRA). Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgment to, IFPRI and CNRA. This series has been prepared as an output for the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or CNRA.


Back to: In-Focus page

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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Côte d'Ivoire

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Côte d'Ivoire (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/CotedIvoire-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative and the National Center for Agricultural Research (CNRA). Based on data collected by ASTI and CNRA, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Ivorian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1981, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI in 2000 - 03.

Long-Term Trends

This section provides detailed quantitative information on long-term investment and capacity trends in Ivorian public agricultural R&D for the period 1971 - 2008. Subsequent sections present detailed data on financial resources (Section B), human resources (Section C), and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Figure A1 – Public agricultural R&D spending adjusted for inflation, 1971 - 2008

Following a period of comparatively high spending on agricultural research and development (R&D) in Côte d'Ivoire, total expenditures dropped sharply in the early 1990s, recovered somewhat in the late-1990s and early 2000s, and remained relatively stable during 2002 - 08. The country invested 12.3 billion CFA francs or 42.6 million PPP dollars in agricultural R&D in 2008 (both in 2005 prices), down from 16.1 billion CFA francs or 55.9 million dollars in 2000.

Figure A1 – Public agricultural R&D spending adjusted for inflation, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. The total agency sample includes various agencies that ceased conducting research during this timeframe, including eight French bilateral government agencies that were merged with CNRA's predecessors, IDESSA and IDEFOR, in 1982 and 1992, respectively. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Côte d'Ivoire country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/cote-divoire.

Figure A2 – Public agricultural R&D spending in current CFA francs, 1971 - 2008

Overall, public agricultural R&D spending increased during 1971 - 2008 in current prices, but levels did not keep pace with national inflation rates (see Figure A1).

Figure A2 – Public agricultural R&D spending in current CFA francs, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Table A1 – Public agricultural research spending, 1971 - 2008

The overall decline in public agricultural R&D spending (in real terms) was the result of reduced expenditures at the bilateral government agencies, which spent a combined average of 14.9 billion CFA francs or 51.9 million PPP dollars during 1971 - 75, compared with 0.1 billion CFA francs or 0.3 million PPP dollars during 2006 - 08 (all in constant 2005 prices). Eight of these bilateral agencies were merged with predecessors of the National Center for Agricultural Research (CNRA) during the early 1980s and early 1990s. (Note that the five-year averages presented below mask the significant fluctuations in yearly spending illustrated in Figure A1.)

Figure

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2006 - 08, a three-year average. Expenditures for the nine higher education agencies were estimated. See asti.cgiar.org/cote-divoire/datacoverage for more information.

Figure A3 – Shares of agricultural R&D spending by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the bilateral government agencies accounted for more than three-quarters of agricultural R&D expenditures until eight of these agencies were merged with CNRA's predecessors. During the late-1990s and 2000s, CNRA and its predecessors accounted for around 80 percent of the country's agricultural R&D spending. Throughout the period, the higher education agencies gradually increased their share, which by 2006 - 08 reached 18 percent.

Figure

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five-year averages, with the exception of 2006 - 08, a three-year average.

Table A2 – Yearly rates of R&D spending growth by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, growth in spending on Ivorian agricultural research stagnated or was slightly negative. Strong positive growth occurred in the early 1990s due to the aforementioned merger of bilateral government agencies with CNRA (12 percent per year), but this was more than offset by the corresponding sharp decline in spending by the bilateral agencies. During the early 1990s, overall growth declined to a low of - 9.6 percent per year, recovering somewhat in the late-1990s and early 2000s, before turning slightly negative again during 2001 - 06. The National Laboratory for Agricultural Development (LANADA) reported the highest rate of agricultural R&D spending growth during 2006 - 08 (27 percent), followed by Center for Oceanological Research (CRO) (9 percent). Main agencies/sectors

Table A2 – Yearly rates of R&D spending growth by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Expenditures for the nine higher education agencies were estimated. Yearly growth rates were calculated using the least - squares regression method. See asti.cgiar.org/cote-divoire/datacoverage for more information.

Figure A4 – Public agricultural research staff in full-time equivalents, 1971 - 2008

After steady increases – peaking at 245 full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers in 1989 – human resource capacity in agricultural R&D declined substantially from the early 1990s, stabilizing at around 120 FTEs between 2004 and 2008. CNRA was largely responsible for the decline.

Figure

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. The agency sample includes various agencies that discontinued research activities before 2008, including eight French bilateral government agencies that merged with CNRA's predecessors, IDESSA and IDEFOR, in 1982 and 1992, respectively. Data include expatriate research staff employed at CNRA and CRO during the 1980s and 1990s.

Table A3 – Public agricultural research staffing in full-time equivalents, 1971 - 2008

Disaggregated data illustrate the variability of Ivorian agricultural research capacity over time. The average number of researchers in 2006 - 08 was 120 FTEs compared with 217 in 1986 - 90 and 128 during the early 1970s. Agricultural research capacity at the higher education agencies steadily rose from an average of 6 FTEs in 1971 - 75 to 20 during 2006 - 08. Main agencies/sectors

Table A3 – Public agricultural research staffing in full-time equivalents, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2006 - 08, a three-year average.

Figure A5 – Shares of public agricultural R&D staff numbers by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Consistent with the trend in expenditures (see Figure A3), the share of FTE researchers at the bilateral government agencies dramatically decreased due to their merger with CNRA. In 2006 - 08, of all the agricultural R&D staff in Côte d'Ivoire, CNRA accounted for 68 percent, the higher education agencies for 17 percent, other government agencies for 8 percent, and the bilateral government agencies for 7 percent.

Figure A5 – Shares of public agricultural R&D staff numbers by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003 and ASTI - CNRA 2009.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Calculations are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2006 - 08, a three-year average.

Table A4 – Annual rates of growth in R&D staff numbers by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Overall, the average rate of growth of agricultural R&D staff was positive during the 1970s and 1980s, but negative during the 1990s and the first part of the new millennium stagnating thereafter. The total number of researchers grew by -1.1 percent per year during 2001 - 06 and 2.0 percent per year during 2006 - 08. Across agencies, the Institute of Tropical Geography at the University of Cocody-Abidjan (UCA) had the highest annual growth rate during 2006 - 08 at 31 percent. Main agencies/sectors

Table A4 – Annual rates of growth in R&D staff numbers by institutional category, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI - CNRA 2009; Stads and Beintema 2003.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Annual growth rates were calculated using the least-squares regression method.

Table A5 – Various agricultural research intensity ratios, 1971 - 2008

Total public spending on agricultural research as a percentage of agricultural output (AgGDP) – known as the research intensity ratio – declined from $1.15 during 1971 - 76 per $100 of agricultural output to $0.59 during 2006 - 08. All other intensity ratios also declined. Intensity ratio

Table A5 – Various agricultural research intensity ratios, 1971 - 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from Stads and Beintema 2003, ASTI - CNRA 2009, FAO 2009, and World Bank 2009.
Notes: Calculations are based on five-year averages with the exception of 2005 - 08, a three-year average. Research spending as a share of AgGDP is calculated using a weighted average. Farmers are defined as the population economically active in agriculture, an FAO classification. Pre-1980 data on farmer numbers were not available.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and National Center for Agricultural Research (CNRA). Sections of this Data in Focus issue may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgment to, IFPRI and CNRA. This series has been prepared as an output for the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI or CNRA.


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Gabon: ASTI–IRAF Country Note

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Version française

Authors:
Stads, Gert-Jan; Obiang Angwe, Paul

Year:
2011

Publisher
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); and Agricultural and Forestry Research Institute (IRAF)

Publication category

Africa south of the Sahara

Over the past few decades, Gabon’s agricultural research spending levels have exhibited a highly volatile trend. In 2008, the country invested 406 million CFA francs, or 1.6 million dollars (in PPP 2005 prices), which represents an extremely low level compared with most other African countries. Spending just 0.2 percent of its AgGDP on agricultural R&D, Gabon’s intensity ratio is one of Africa’s lowest. In contrast, the total number of agricultural researchers has been steadily increasing over the past few decades. In 2008, the country’s research capacity totaled 61 FTEs. These indicators bring to light a true paradox: on the one hand, Gabon employs an increasing number of agricultural researchers; on the other hand, the resources needed to carry out the research responsibilities are extremely low and erratic.

Another paradox appears when one considers that—despite its status as one of Africa’s most developed countries—Gabon is of the world’s least developed countries in terms of its agricultural R&D facilities. The agricultural research agencies lack staffing, equipment, programs, and funding. Government grants allocated to the CENAREST institutes are irregular and frequently adjusted downwards as the budgetary year progresses, which leaves the institutes in dire inancial straits. This has led to situations where CENAREST researchers ind themselves underemployed, which negatively impacts their motivation. In addition, Gabonese researchers feel discouraged or disinterested in the face of the rigidity marking the civil service and the obstacles standing in the way of obtaining tenure or permission to travel or study abroad.

Since Gabon is a middle-income country, it is not attributed a high level of priority by foreign donors, whose attention is captured instead by many of its neighbors. The responsibility to endow the country’s research agencies with the tools and funds they need to be fully operational is in the national government’s hands. In order for Gabon’s agriculture to become a prominent sector that will help lead the country towards food sovereignty, the national government will have to increase its level of funding to support agricultural R&D – considerably so, and without further delay.

African Agricultural R&D in the New Millennium: Progress for Some, Challenges for Many

After a decade of stagnation during the 1990s, investments and human resource capacity in public agricultural research and development (R&D) averaged more than 20 percent growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during 2001–2008. In 2008, the region spent $1.7 billion on agricultural R&D (in 2005 purchasing power parity dollars)—or $0.8 billion (in 2005 constant US dollars)—and employed more than 12,000 full-time equivalent (FTE) agricultural researchers. Most of this growth, however, occurred in only a handful of countries and was largely the result of increased government commitments to augment incommensurately low salary levels and to rehabilitate neglected infrastructure, often after years of underinvestment. Many countries—particularly those in francophone West Africa, which are threatened by extremely fragile funding systems—face fundamental capacity and investment challenges. National investment levels in such countries have fallen so low as to leave them dangerously dependent on often volatile, external funding sources. Despite the overall capacity growth recorded, average qualification levels have deteriorated in a number of countries. Some reported large influxes of BSc-qualified scientists, often in response to prolonged recruitment restrictions, further straining already inadequate training opportunities and far exceeding the capacity for appropriate oversight and mentorship by senior researchers, given years of nonreplacement of retiring and departing scientists.

Notwithstanding the challenges facing many countries, renewed commitment to agricultural R&D by governments and donors indicates improved prospects for agricultural R&D for a number of African countries.

Regional initiatives are also a key factor in increasing research coordination and collaboration and ensuring the prioritization and efficiency of research. Increased and sustained investment from national governments, regional and international organizations, and large donors will go a long way toward stabilizing investment and capacity levels and enabling real progress for agricultural R&D in the region.

Building on the strategic recommendations of various highly influential reports and meetings, and taking into account the various investment and capacity challenges outlined in this report, four key areas with strong implications for policy must be addressed by governments, donors, and other stakeholders: (1) decades of underinvestment in agricultural R&D; (2) excessive volatility in yearly investment levels; (3) existing and imminent challenges in human resource capacity; and (4) the need to maximize regional and subregional cooperation in agricultural R&D.

ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Nigeria

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Nigeria (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Nigeria-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative, the Farm and Infrastructure Foundation (FIF), and the Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria (ARCN). Based on data collected by ASTI, FIF, and ARCN, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Nigerian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1971, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI in 2001 - 03.

D. Research Allocation across Commodities and Themes

This section provides detailed quantitative information on Nigerian public agricultural research allocation in 2008. Complementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), financial resources (Section B), and human resources (Section C). Further supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

This table presents the number of researchers by major commodity area both in absolute and relative terms. In 2008, 684 of the 1,817 full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers in a sample of 49 agencies focused on crop research. Of the remaining researchers, 419 FTEs focused on livestock, 135 FTEs on forestry, 67 FTEs on fisheries, and 511 FTEs on other commodity areas. Large variations were reported across the government agencies. While 52 percent of researchers at the National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) focused on crop research, researchers at the remaining seven government agencies focused mostly on noncrop areas.

Table D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Research focus data were not available for all 66 higher education agencies.

Figure D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

This figure presents the allocation of FTE researchers across different commodity areas (see also Table D1). In 2008, 38 percent of FTE researchers in agriculture were involved in crop research. Livestock research accounted for 23 percent, forestry research for 7 percent, and fisheries research for 4 percent. The remaining researchers concentrated their efforts on socioeconomic research, postharvest research, or other matters. Notably, research focus varied widely across agencies.

Figure D1–Research focus by major commodity area, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Research focus data were not available for all 66 higher education agencies.

Table D2–Focus of crop and livestock research by major item, 2008

The most researched crop in Nigeria in 2008 was cassava, accounting for 7 percent of total crop and livestock researchers. Oil palm, maize, and fruits each accounted for 4 percent of FTEs. The country's livestock researchers concentrated primarily on poultry (8 percent), beef (6 percent), and swine (5 percent).

Table D2–Focus of crop and livestock research by major item, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Table D3–Focus of crop and livestock research by major theme, 2008

This table shows FTE researchers by thematic area in absolute and relative terms. Crop related themes accounted for 445 of the 1,757 FTE researchers in the 49-agency sample in 2008. That year, 12 percent of Nigeria's agricultural researchers focused on crop genetic improvement, 6 percent focused on crop pest and disease control, and another 8 percent focused on other research related to crops. Livestock genetic improvement, pest and disease control, and other livestock research were other important thematic areas. Large variations were reported across agencies.

Table D3–Focus of crop and livestock research by major theme, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute, , Farm and Infrastructure Foundation, and Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria. Sections of this Data in Focus sheet may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgement to, IFPRI, FIF, and ARCN. The Data in Focus sheet has been prepared as an output for the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI, FIF, or ARCN.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Nigeria

The ASTI Data in Focus series provides additional background data in support of the 2010 Country Note on Nigeria (asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Nigeria-Note.pdf) prepared by the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative, the Farm and Infrastructure Foundation (FIF), and the Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria (ARCN). Based on data collected by ASTI, FIF, and ARCN, these two outputs review major investment and capacity trends in Nigerian public agricultural research and development (R&D) since 1971, providing important updates on agricultural R&D trends prepared by ASTI in 2001 - 03.

C. Human Resources

This section provides detailed quantitative information on full-time equivalent (FTE) agricultural research and support staff trends including qualifications, gender and age distribution, and support-staff-per-researcher ratios. Supplementary sections present detailed data on long-term trends (Section A), financial resources (Section B) and research allocation (Section D). Other supporting information provides macroeconomic trends, a list of agencies included in the study, data sources and estimation procedures, and ASTI's methodology.

Table C1–Total researcher levels across various agencies, 2008

In 2008, the 15 national agricultural research institutes (NARIs) under the Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria (ARCN) accounted for 43 percent of Nigeria's agricultural research and development (R&D) capacity. The largest agency was the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) with 140 full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers. The other government and higher education agencies accounted for 17 and 41 percent of the total agricultural R&D capacity, respectively. The largest higher education agencies, were the University of Nigeria (83 FTEs), Ahmadu Bello University (69 FTEs), and University of Ibadan (47 FTEs).

Table C1–Total researcher levels across various agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category Data for 38 higher education agencies were estimated using the agencies' combined 2000 share. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Nigeria country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/datacoverage. For full agency names see asti.cgiar.org/Nigeria/agencies.

Figure C1–Research staff trends at NARIs by degree (in full-time equivalents), 1991 - 2008

The NARIs' research capacity increased from 578 FTE researchers in 1991 to 883 FTEs in 2008. The number of FTE researchers increased across all levels of qualifications, although a relatively higher number of the new researchers held BSc degrees. Accordingly, the share of BSc-holders in total research staff at the NARIs increased from 15 percent in 1991 to 31 percent in 2008.

Figure C1–Research staff trends at NARIs by degree (in full-time equivalents), 1991 - 2008

Sources : Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Nigeria country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/datacoverage.

Figure C2–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at other government agencies by degree, 1991 - 2008

From 1991 to 2008, the number of researchers at the other government agencies increased from 159 to 340 FTEs. Similar to the NARIs, an increasing share of new researchers held BSc degrees. In 2008, 36 percent of FTE researchers held BSc degrees compared to 29 percent in 2001.

Figure C2–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at other government agencies by degree, 1991 - 2008

Sources : Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Nigeria country page on ASTI's website at www.asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/datacoverage.

Figure C3–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at 28 higher education agencies by degree, 2001 - 08

From 2001 to 2008, the number of FTE researchers at the 28 higher education agencies for which degree data were available increased from 371 to 621. Across degree levels, PhD-qualified researchers increased from 183 to 245, MSc-qualified researchers increased from 312 to 364, and BSc-qualified researchers increased from 84 to 274.

Figure C3–Full-time equivalent researcher trends at 28 higher education agencies by degree, 2001 - 08

Sources : Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Nigeria country page on ASTI's website at www.asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/datacoverage.

Figure C4–Distribution of researcher qualifications across various agencies, 2008

Distribution of qualifications across agencies varied widely. Among the NARIs, more than one half of the total researchers at the National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI), the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR), and the Institute of Agriculture Research & Training (IART) were PhD-qualified in 2008. In contrast, BSc holders accounted for more than 40 percent of total research staff at the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR), and the National Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI). The higher education agencies combined employed a larger share of PhD-qualified researchers (54 percent) compared to the NARIs (combined 28 percent) and the other government agencies (combined 23 percent).

Figure C4–Distribution of researcher qualifications across various agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Staff at higher education agencies do not include estimates. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Nigeria country page on ASTI's website at www.asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/datacoverage.

Figure C5–Female share of researchers by degree and institutional category, 2000 and 2008

Although the share of female agricultural researchers increased from 18 percent in 2000 to 23 percent in 2008, women remain underrepresented in Nigerian agricultural R&D. In 2008, out of the 1,488 FTE researchers for which gender data were available, only 346 were female. On a positive note, the share of women increased across all qualification levels during this period.

Figure C5–Female share of researchers by degree and institutional category, 2000 and 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. Gender data were only available for 14 higher education agencies. For a complete list of agency names, see www.asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/agencies.

Figure C6–Distribution of researcher qualifications by gender, 2000 and 2008

The share of PhD-qualified male researchers increased from 32 to 34 percent during 2000 - 08, whereas the share of PhD-qualified female researchers remained stable at 20 percent.

Figure C6–Distribution of researcher qualifications by gender, 2000 and 2008

Sources: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10 and Beintema and Ayoola 2004.
Note: See Figure C5 for agency sample size.

Figure C7–Female share in total FTE research staff by degree across various agencies, 2008

The National Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) employed the highest share of female researchers (55 percent). Among higher education agencies, the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of Ilorin (FA-UNILORIN) had the highest share of female researchers at 29 percent. The Lake Chad Research Institute (LCRI) had the lowest share of female researchers at 8 percent, and all of them were only BSc qualified.

Figure C7–Female share in total FTE research staff by degree across various agencies, 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.
Notes: This figure includesdata from the Faculties of Agriculture at University of Port Harcourt (UNIPORT), University of Ilorin (UNILORIN), and Obafemi Awolowo Univeristy (OAU) in addition to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University (UDU) and the College of Agronomy at the University of Agriculture, Makurdi (UAM). For a complete listing of universities and faculties, please visit the Nigeria Country Profile at asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/directory.

Figure C8–Age distribution of researchers by gender, 2007

In 2007, 62 percent of researchers were over 40 years old, 28 percent of which were older than 50. Male researchers were slightly older than their female colleagues. In 2007, 66 percent of the male researchers compared with only 52 percent of the female researchers were over the age of 40. Notably, only 6 percent of researchers in our sample were under the age of 31.

Figure C8–Age distribution of researchers by gender, 2007

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI - AWARD 2008/09.
Note: Data for LCRI were not available.

Figure C9–Trends in full-time equivalent researchers and technicians at government agencies, 2001 - 08

Government agricultural R&D agencies employ a large number of technicians with university degrees who do not have official researcher status. In 2008, these agencies employed 8 FTE technicians with PhD degrees, 30 with MSc degrees, and 306 with BSc degrees. From 2001 to 2008, the number of FTE technicians with degrees grew at a slightly slower rate as total FTE researchers in the government sector.

Figure C9–Trends in full-time equivalent researchers and technicians at government agencies, 2001 - 08

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.

Figure C10–Trends in full-time equivalent researchers and technicians at government agencies, 2001 - 08

The total number of support staff increased slightly during 2001 - 08 from 7,270 to 7,307. In 2008, the government agencies combined employed 345 technicians with BSc or MSc degrees, 2,534 other technicians, 1,588 administrative support staff, and 2,840 other support staff such as drivers, laborers, etc.

Figure C10–Trends in full-time equivalent researchers and technicians at government agencies, 2001 - 08

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.

Figure C11–Support-staff-per-researcher ratios by institutional category, 2001 and 2008

On average, the support-staff-per-researcher ratio decreased from 6.3 in 2001 to 4.2 in 2008. The latter ratio comprised 1.6 technicians, 0.9 administrative support staff, and 1.6 other support staff. Compared with the government agencies, ratios in the higher education sector were lower, averaging less than one supporting staff member for every researcher–a common phenomenon across countries, given that research is a secondary activity at the higher education agencies.

Figure C11–Support-staff-per-researcher ratios by institutional category, 2001 and 2008

Source: Calculated by authors from ASTI-FIF-ARCN 2009 - 10.
Notes: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the Nigeria country page on ASTI's website at asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/datacoverage.

Copyright (C) 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute, Farm and Infrastructure Foundation, and Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria. Sections of this Data in Focus sheet may be reproduced without the express permission of, but with acknowledgement to, IFPRI, FIF, and ARCN. The Data in Focus sheet has been prepared as an output for the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of ASTI and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of IFPRI, FIF, or ARCN.


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