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Data collection procedures

ASTI collects primary data through national survey rounds in close collaboration with country focal points. These focal points are typically based at national agricultural research institutes but may be independent consultants. Survey forms are distributed to all agencies known to conduct agricultural research in a given country. ASTI has developed three different types of surveys:

ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Nepal

Government Agencies

Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives (MOAC)

NARC

Nepal Agricultural Research Council

Ministry of Science & Technology

NAST

Nepal Academy of Science and Technology

DFRS

Department of Forest Research and Survey

Higher Education

TU-IOF

Tribhuvan University – Institute of Forestry

TU-IAAS

Tribhuvan University - Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science

Non Profit

LI-BIRD

Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development

FORWARD

Forum for Rural Welfare and Agricultural Reform for Development

CEAPRED

Center for Environmental and Agricultural Policy Research, Extension and Development


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Nepal

Data sources

Primary data were collected through two consecutive institutional survey rounds in 2004-2005 and 2008-2009 (both under the ASTI initiative).

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
India

Government agencies

Indian Council for Agricultural Research

CICR

Central Institute for Cotton Research

CRIJAF

Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres

CRRI

Central Rice Research Institute

CTRI

Central Tobacco Research Institute

DOR

Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Formerly known as All India Coordinated Research Project on Oilseeds (AICORPO)

DMR

Directorate of Maize Research

DRR

Directorate of Rice Research

DWR

Directorate of Wheat Research

IARI

Indian Agricultural Research Institute

IGFRI

Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute

IIPR

Indian Institute of Pulses Research

IISR

Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research

NBPGR

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources

NCIPM

National Centre for Integrated Pest Management

DGR

Directorate of Groundnut Research
Formerly known as National Research Centre for Groundnut

DSR

Directorate of Sorghum Research
Formerly known as National Research Centre for Sorghum

DSR

Directorate of Soybean Research
Formerly known as National Research Centre for Soybean

NRCPB

National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology

NRCRM

National Research Centre on Rapeseed-Mustard

NBAII

National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects

Sugarcane Breeding Institute

VPKAS

Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan

DSR

Directorate of Seed Research

CISH

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture

CPCRI

Central Plantation Crops Research Institute

CITH

Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture

CPRI

Central Potato Research Institute

CTCRI

Central Tuber Crops Research Institute

ICAR-RCER

ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region

ICAR Research Complex for Goa

IIHR

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research

IISR

Indian Institute of Spices Research

IIVR

Indian Institute of Vegetable Research

CIAH

Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Formerly known as National Research Centre for Arid Horticulture (NRCAH)

NRCB

National Research Centre for Banana

DCR

Directorate of Cashew Research
Formerly known as National Research Centre for Cashew (NRCC)

National Research Centre for Citrus

National Research Centre for Grapes

NRCL

National Research Centre for Litchi

DMR

Directorate of Mushroom Research
Formerly known as National Research Centre for Mushroom

DMAPR

Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
Formerly known as National Research Centre for Medicinal & Aromatic Plants

DOPR

Directorate of Oil Palm Research

DOGR

Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research
Formerly known as National Research Centre for Onion and Garlic

NRCO

National Research Centre for Orchids

NRCSS

National Research Centre on Seed Spices

NRCP

National Research Centre on Pomegranate

CARI

Central Agricultural Research Institute

CAZRI

Central Arid Zone Research Institute

CRIDA

Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture

CSWCRTI

Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute

CSSRI

Central Soil Salinity Research Institute

ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region

IISS

Indian Institute of Soil Science

NBSS&LUP

National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning

NRCAF

National Research Centre for Agroforestry

DWSR

Directorate of Weed Science Research

NBAIM

National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms

DWM

Directorate of Water Management
Formerly known as Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region

CIAE

Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering

NAIM

National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management

CIRCOT

Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology

CIPHET

Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology

IINRG

Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Formerly known as Indian Lac Research Institute (ILRI)

National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology

CARI

Central Avian Research Institute

CIRB

Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes

CIRG

Central Institute for Research on Goats

CSWRI

Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute

IVRI

Indian Veterinary Research Institute

NBAGR

National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources

NDRI

National Dairy Research Institute

National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources

NIANP

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology

NRCC

National Research Centre on Camel

NRCE

National Research Centre on Equines

NRCMEAT

National Research Centre on Meat

NRCM

National Research Centre on Mithun

NARY

National Research Centre on Yak

PD_ADMAS

Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance

PDC

Project Directorate on Cattle

PDP

Project Directorate on Poultry

National Research Centre on Pig

CIFRI

Central Inland Fisheries Research Insitute

CIBA

Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture

CIFE

Central Insititute of Fisheries Education

CIFT

Central Institute of Fisheries Technology

CIFA

Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture

NBFGR

National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources

DCFR

Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research
Formerly known as National Research Centre on Coldwater Fisheries

IASRI

Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute

NCAP

National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research

NAARM

National Academy of Agricultural Research Management

NRCWA

National Research Centre for Women in Agriculture

Project Directorate on Foot & Mouth Disease

Indian Council of Forestry and Education

FRI

Forest Research Institute

AFRI

Arid Forest Research Institute

RFRI

Rain Forest Research Institute

IFGTB

Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding

IFP

Institute of Forest Productivity

IWST

Institute of Wood Science and Technology

HFRI

Himalayan Forest Research Institute

TFRI

Tropical Forest Research Institute

Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India

Coffee Board of India

Rubber Board

CSB

Central Silk Board

Tea Board of India

Other government agencies

BIRD-K BAIF

Institute for Rural Development – Karnataka

IHBT

Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology

KFRI

Kerala Forest Research Institute

Higher Education

State Agricultural Universities

AAU

Assam Agricultural University

APAU

Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University

Dr.Y.S.R Horticultural University

BAU

Birsa Agricultural University

BCKV

Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya

CSA

Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology

CCS - HAU

Chaudhary Charan Singh Agricultural University Haryana Agricultural University

CAU

Central Agricultural University

GBPUAT

G. B. Pant University Of Agriculture & Technology

IGKV

Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya

JNKVV

Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya

DBSKKV

Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidypeeth

KAU

Kerala Agricultural University

MAU

Marathwada Agricultural University

MPKV

Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth

NDUAT

Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology

OUAT

Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology

PAU

Punjab Agricultural University

PDKV

Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth

MPUAT

Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology

RAU

Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University

RAU

Rajendra Agricultural University

SKUAST-Jammu

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu

SKUAST-Kashmir

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir

TNAU

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University

TNVASU

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

UAS

University of Agricultural Sciences, Ghandi Krishi Vignyan Kendra Banglalore

UASD

University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad

WBUAFS

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry

SVP

Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology

Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya

UBKV

Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya

MAFSU

Maharashtra Animal & Fishery Sciences University

Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan, Mathura

RAJUVAS

Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

KVAFSU

Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University

GADVASU

Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

RVSKVV

Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya

GAU

Gujarat Agricultural University
This university split into the following SAUs in 2004: SDAU, NAU, JAU, and AAU.

SDAU

Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University

NAU

Navsari Agricultural University

JAU

Junagadh Agricultural University

AAU

Anand Agricultural University

SHIATS

Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences

Other Higher Education

AMU

Aligarh Muslim University - Faculty of Agricultural Sciences

BHU

Banaras Hindu University - Institute of Agricultural Sciences

TNAU-PAJANCOA

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University - Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture

RSMPG

Ranjit Singh Memorial Post-Graduate College

PDKV-ANCA

Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth - Anand Niketan College of Agriculture

Khalsa College Amritsar - Faculty of Agriculture

Dayanand College - Faculty of Agriculture

Ch. Shivnath Singh Shandilya College

Tamilnadu Agricultural University - Adhiparasakthi Agriculture College

Baba Raghav Das Bhagwan Das Group College

Nagaland University - School of Agricultural Science & Rural Development

PDKV-SSAC

Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth - Shri Shivaji Agriculture College

Amar Singh College

University of Calcutta - Institute of Agricultural Science

Annamalai University - Faculty of Agriculture


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
India

Data sources

Primary data were collected through two consecutive institutional survey rounds in 2003-2004 and 2010-2011 (both under the ASTI initiative). These data were combined with the following secondary sources:

  • GoI (Government of India). 2011. Various years. Finance Accounts. New Delhi. www.india.gov.in
  • ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research). 2003-2009. Annual Reports. New Delhi.
  • Annual reports for the period 2003-09 for various State Agricultural Universities (SAUs).

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for a number of other higher education and government agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher at the SAUs and ICAR institutes.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology.


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ASTI Methodology and Data Collection Standards - Practitioner’s Guide: General Definitions and Procedures

WHAT IS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT?

The Frascati Manual (2002) www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/frascati-manual-2002_9789264199040-en defines R&D as "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge..... and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It goes on to categorize R&D as basic research, applied research, and experimental development.

ASTI Methodology and Data Collection Standards - Practitioner’s Guide: Methodology

CURRENT INDICATORS AND DATA AVAILABILITY BY REGION

National survey rounds have been rather ad hoc in the past, focusing on one region at a time depending on the availability of funds. As a result, most regional data collection has been limited to updating datasets. ASTI uses a various indicators to measure agricultural research investment and capacity. Table 1 summarizes these, as well as the regions and time periods covered up to 2012.

Contact ASTI

Address and Communication

Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI)
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
2033 K Street, NW
Washington, DC 20006
Tel +1 202 862-5600
Email: asti@cgiar.org

Agricultural R&D in the Caribbean: An Institutional and Statistical Profile

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Roseboom, J.; Cremers, M.; Lauckner, B.

Year:
2001

Publisher
International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR)

Publication category

Overview publications

This study surveyed agricultural R&D capacity in the Caribbean in order to gain better insight into its structure and development, as well as its potential contribution to the development of agriculture in the region.


This study has several principal findings:

a. Agricultural research capacity in the Caribbean is highly fragmented. Of the 116 agricultural research agencies for which data were obtained, 84 employed less than 10
FTE researchers, and 62 employed less than 5.

b. Between 1986 and 1996, the growth in agricultural research capacity in the Caribbean almost halted in terms of the number of researchers, and contracted in terms of expenditures. However, strong positive growth was still noted for the French bilateral research agencies.

c. Agricultural research investment levels relative to AgGDP are rather high for many of the smaller Caribbean countries. This is not necessarily an indication of intensive innovation, but rather a lack of economies of scale. Such high intensities are possible because of generous donor support or a rich non-agricultural sector.

d. For every 100 million dollars of crop, livestock, forestry, and fisheries production, the region employed, respectively, 33.5, 10.9, 13.0, and 48.9 FTE researchers.  Assuming that innovation opportunities are the same for all four types of production, livestock and forestry appear neglected when compared to crops and fisheries.

e. Lack of economies of scale in the agricultural input and processing industries, as well as in the provision of public services (including agricultural research), is a  serious handicap for modern agricultural production in many of the small Caribbean countries. Commodity specialization and clustering of research activities across countries are some ways of creating enough volume of research benefits to pay for research costs.

Recent Developments in the Conduct of Latin American Agricultural Research

ASTI publicaiton cover

Authors:
Beintema, Nienke; Pardey, Philip G.

Year:
2001

Publisher
(International Food Policy Research Institute(IFPRI); and International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR)

Publication category

Overview publications

It is hard to distill a concise picture of Latin American agricultural R&D based on these new data and doubly difficult to discern what these trends portend for the future of agricultural R&D in the region. After the generally dismal decade of the 1980s, public investments in agricultural R&D rebound in some countries during the first  half of the 1990s. But the recovery seems fragile and not shared widely throughout the region. Public research in countries like Brazil and Colombia that did better in the early 1990s suffered cutbacks in the later part of the decade, and many of the poorer (and smaller) countries have failed to experience any sustained growth in funding for the past several decades.

Neither has private research stepped in to fill the gap. Reliable estimates on private research spending are hard to come by, but the best (and most recent) evidence we have assembled suggests that in 1996 less than $100 million of the almost  $1.6 billion of agricultural R&D spending in our 9-country sample was done by private firms. Evidently most of the private technologies used throughout the region are based on research done elsewhere.

The future of technical change in Latin American agriculture is heavily dependent on accessing technologies best suited to local markets and production constraints, cognizant of the everchanging trade prospects facing the region. This means generating technologies locally or tapping and, where necessary, adapting technologies developed in other parts of the world. Absent adequate investment in research to generate, screen, and test technologies Latin American agriculture will slip behind its competitors. Perhaps the most worrying indications in our data is an apparent bifurcation of research throughout the region. The richer countries may be making sufficient investments to stay in the race (although even here the trends are not entirely convincing, with investment slowdowns in many of these countries in recent years), but poorer countries seem to be slipping behind, both in terms of their ability to generate new technologies now and to continue doing so in the future.

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