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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Argentina

Data sources

Primary data were collected through two institutional survey rounds in 1997-1999 (jointly by IFPRI and ISNAR), and 2007-2009 (under the ASTI initiative). These data were combined with the following secondary source:

  • www.conicet.gov.ar CONICET (National Council for Scientific and Technical Research). 2009. Red institucional. (accessed May 2009).

See also Stads, Ruiz, and De Greef (2010). www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Argentina-CB44.pdf

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Vietnam

Data sources

Primary data were collected through two institutional survey rounds in 2003-2004 and 2011-2012 (under the ASTI initiative).

See also Stads and Viet Hai (2006). www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Vietnam_CB33.pdf .

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Philippines

Data sources

Primary data were collected through two institutional survey rounds in 1985 (under ISNAR's "Indicators Series Project") and 2003-2004 (both under the ASTI initiative).

For additional secondary sources that were used to construct the pre-1996 data series, see data citations provided in Stads, Faylon, and Buendia (2007). www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/PhilippinesCR.pdf .

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Papua New Guinea

Data sources

Primary data were collected through two institutional survey rounds in 2003-2004 and 2011-2012 (under the ASTI initiative).

See also Stads, Omot, and Beintema (2005). www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/PNG_CB28.pdf .

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Myanmar

Data sources

Primary data were collected through an institutional survey round in 2003-2004 (under the ASTI initiative).

See also Stads and Sian Kam (2007). www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Myanmar_CB38.pdf .

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Malaysia

Data sources

Primary data were collected through three institutional survey rounds in 1985 (under ISNAR's "Indicators Series Project"), 2003-2004, and 2011-2012 (both under the ASTI initiative).These data were combined with the following secondary data sources:

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. 2012. Faculty of Resource Sciences and Technology Academic Staff. <http://www.frst.unimas.my/staffmainmenu-39/academic-staff-mainmenu-130.html>. Accessed February 12, 2012.

For additional secondary sources that were used to construct the pre-1996 data series, see data citations provided in Stads, Tawang, and Beintema (2005). www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Malaysia_CB30.pdf .

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Laos

Data sources

Primary data were collected through two institutional survey rounds in 2003-2004 and 2011-2012 (both under the ASTI initiative).

See also Stads and Manivong (2006). www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Laos_CB32.pdf .

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Cambodia

Data sources

Primary data were collected through two institutional survey rounds in 2003-2004 and 2011-2012 (both under the ASTI initiative).

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Indonesia

Data sources

Primary data were collected through an institutional survey round in 2003-2004 (under the ASTI initiative).

See also Stads, Haryono, and Nurjayanti (2007). www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/IndonesiaCR.pdf .

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology.


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ASTI DATA IN FOCUS
Malawi

Data sources

Primary data were collected through four consecutive institutional survey rounds in 1984, 1993-94 (under ISNAR's "Indicators Series Project"), 2003-04, and 2008-09 (both under the ASTI initiative). These data were combined with a number of secondary data sources:

For additional secondary sources that were used to construct the pre-1991 data series, see appendices and reference lists in Roseboom and Pardey (1993) www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/pubs/isnararchive/indicator/pdf/03-malawi.pdf and Beintema, Mwenda, and Mtukuso (2004 www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Malawi_CB22.pdf).

Estimation procedures

  • For a number of agencies, research staff and expenditure data were missing for certain years. These have been interpolated or in a few cases extrapolated.
  • Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology www.asti.cgiar.org/methodology.


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