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China Data in Focus - Data Sources and Estimations


Data sources

Data series were constructed using:

  • NBS and MOST (National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Science and Technology). Various years, China Statistical Yearbook on Science and Technology. Beijing: China Statistics Press.

See also Chen, Flaherty, and Zhang (2012). Download PDF

Estimation procedures

  • Ten percent of biological research expenditures were assumed to be agriculturally-related and were included in higher education spending.
  • Expenditures for the higher education sector for 1986-2000 were estimated using underlying data from Fan, Qian, and Zhang (2006).

For general ASTI data procedures and methodology, please visit

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