ASTI Data Technical Notes

ASTI Data Technical Notes

Country Name

Data Sources and Notes

Argentina

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-INTA 2007-08) and Beintema and Pardey (2001); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Argentina_SummaryBrief_En.pdf.

Expenditure data for INTA for 1999-2003 are estimates based on Argentina’s agricultural GDP data from World Bank (2008); data for CONICET agencies for 1981-1995 have been extrapolated based on data for 1996. Data for CONICET agencies for 1997-2003 have been interpolated. Expenditure data for higher education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government sector. Staff data at the higher education agencies for 1981-1995 have been extrapolated based on data for 1996. Staff data for the higher education sector for 1997-2003 have been interpolated.

Bangladesh

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–BARC 2003–04), ACU (various years), ISNAR (1990), and various institute-specific publications; see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Bangladesh_CB34.pdf).

Total researcher numbers and expenditures for some of the government agencies and in general for the years 1982–85, 1987–90, 1992–95 have been interpolated or extrapolated using average spending per researcher data of government agencies for which data were available. Expenditures for IFST are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher for the other 20 government agencies. Expenditures for the higher-education sector are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies.

Belize

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-IICA 2007-08) and Roseboom, Cremers, and Lauckner (2001); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/ASTICentralAmerica-En.pdf.

Data for 1997-2003 are interpolated. Expenditures for the higher-education sector are estimates based on average expenditures per researchers at the government agencies.

Benin

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/benin/datacoverage

Botswana

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/botswana/datacoverage

Brazil

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-Embrapa 2007-08) and Beintema, Dias Avila, and Pardey (2001); see for full references: http://www.ifpri.org/themes/grp01/grp01_brazil.pdf.

Post-1996 staff and expenditure data for the government agencies other than Embrapa and APTA as well as a large number of higher education agencies have been extrapolated based on trends in Embrapa and APTA.

Burkina Faso

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/burkina-faso/datacoverage

Burundi

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/burundi/datacoverage

Chile

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-INIA 2007-08), Castelo Magalhães et al. (2002), and a number of agency websites; see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Chile_CB42_En.pdf.

Staff and expenditure data for government agencies other than INIA were unavailable for some years. Data for the missing years have either been

interpolated or extrapolated based on data for INIA. Expenditures for CAD in 2006 are estimates based on the agency’s expenditures in 2005. Expenditures for the higher education agencies are estimates based on average spending per researcher at the government agencies.

China

Compiled from data from: MOST (Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of China). Various years. China Science and Technology Statistics Data Book. Beijing.

Colombia

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI 2007–08); Beintema, Romano and Pardey (2000); and a number of agency websites. See for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Colombia_CB39.pdf.

Staff and expenditure data were unavailable for 1997–2003 for all agencies, except CORPOICA. Staff data were unavailable for CORPOICA for 2000–03.

Expenditures for IDEAM and IIAP are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the other government agencies. Expenditures for CENIBANANO, FEDECACAO, FENALCE, VECOL, and CIPAV are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the other producer associations for which financial data were available. Expenditures for the higher education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies.

Congo

(Republic of)

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/republic-of-congo/datacoverage

Costa Rica

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-IICA 2007-08) and an unpublished draft by Beintema, Zumbado Rojas, Medina Castro, and Pardey (2000); see for full references http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/ASTICentralAmerica-En.pdf.

Staff and expenditure data for 1999-2003 have been interpolated. Expenditures for the higher education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies.

Côte d’Ivoire

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/cote-divoire/datacoverage

Dominican Republic

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-IDIAF 2007-08) and Roseboom, Cremers, and Lauckner (2001).

Staff and expenditure data for 1997-2003 have been interpolated. Expenditures for the higher education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies.

El Salvador

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-IICA 2007-08); see for full references http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/ASTICentralAmerica-En.pdf.

Staff and expenditure data for CENTA for 1999-2003 have been interpolated. Staff and expenditure data for 1981-2003 for the remaining agencies have been extrapolated based on trends at CENTA. Expenditures for the higher education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies.

Eritrea

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/eritrea/datacoverage

Ethiopia

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/ethiopia/datacoverage

Gabon

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/gabon/datacoverage

Gambia

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/gambia/datacoverage

Ghana

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/ghana/datacoverage

Guatemala

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-IICA 2007-08) and an unpublished draft by Beintema, Zumbado Rojas, Medina Castro, and Pardey (2000); see for full references http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/ASTICentralAmerica-En.pdf.

Staff and expenditure data for 1999-2003 have been interpolated. Expenditures for the higher education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies.

Guinea

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/guinea/datacoverage

Honduras

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-IICA 2007-08) and an unpublished draft by Beintema, Zumbado Rojas, Medina Castro, and Pardey (2000) ; see for full references http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/ASTICentralAmerica-En.pdf.

Staff and expenditure data for 1999-2003 have been interpolated. Expenditures for the higher education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies.

India

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-ICAR 2003-05); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/PolicyBrief27.pdf.

1992-94 spending data and 1992-95 researcher data have been interpolated. Professional staff includes researchers and technicians. Expenditures for the other higher education agencies in our sample are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the State Agricultural Universities.

Indonesia

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–IAARD 2003–05) and Fuglie (2001); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/IndonesiaCR.pdf.

Expenditures for BAKOSURTANAL are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the remaining government agencies. Expenditures for the higher education sector are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies. Expenditures for the omitted private enterprises are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher for the private enterprises for which data were available.

Iran

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–AREO 2005–06); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/IranCR.pdf.

Expenditures for a number of government agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the remaining government agencies. Expenditures for the higher education sector are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies. Expenditures for the private enterprises in our sample are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher for the government agencies.

Jordan

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI 2004–05) and Taimeh and Sunna (1999); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Jordan_CB36.pdf).

Expenditures for the seven higher education agencies were estimated based on NCARTT’s expenditures per researcher, adjusted to allow for higher university salaries. Expenditures for the business enterprises were estimated on the assumption that they were 50 percent higher than those in the higher education.

Kenya

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/kenya/datacoverage

Lao DPR

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–NAFRI 2005); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Laos_CB32.pdf.

Expenditures for the higher-education agencies in our sample are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at NAFRI.

Madagascar

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/madagascar/datacoverage

Malawi

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–ISNAR 2003) and Roseboom and Pardey (1993); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Malawi_CB22.pdf.

Malaysia

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–MARDI 2003–04); ACU (various years); Hashim (1990 and 1992); ISNAR, IFARD, and AOAD (1985); and Mustapha (1981). See for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Malaysia_CB30.pdf.

Staff and expenditures for 1982–85, 1987–90, and 1992–95 have been interpolated. Expenditures for the Department of Agriculture, Sabah, are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the three other government agencies in Sabah and Sarawak. Expenditures for the higher-education sector are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at MARDI, VRI, FRI, and MINT. Expenditures for eight private enterprises are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher for the private enterprises for which data were available.

Mali

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/mali/datacoverage

Mauritania

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/mauritania/datacoverage

Mauritius

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/mauritius/datacoverage

Mexico

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-INIFAP 2007-08), Beintema et al. (2001) and a number of agency websites; see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Mexico_CB41_En.pdf.

Staff data for the other government agencies and higher education agencies were unavailable for 1997-2003 and 2007. Staff data were unavailable for INIFAP for 2002-03. Expenditures for 15 of the smaller government agencies for which no financial information was available are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the remaining government agencies.

Expenditures for UACh, ColPos, UAAAN, and the other higher education agencies are estimates based on average spending per researcher at the government agencies.

Morocco

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–ISNAR–INRA 2003–04) and Besri et al. (1999); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/MOROCCO_CB27.pdf).

Staff and expenditure totals for the other government agencies are extrapolated from 1997 estimates using the trend for INRA. Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies. Researcher totals for CNRF and SEHA have been extrapolated using 1997 data from Besri et al. (1999).

Expenditure totals for all seven other government agencies are estimates based on 1997 data from Besri et al.(1999) and INRA’s average expenditures per researcher. Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher in the government sector.

Mozambique

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/mozambique/datacoverage

Myanmar

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–DAR 2005-06); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Myanmar_CB38.pdf.

Expenditures for the higher education agencies were estimated based on average expenditures per researcher at the nine government agencies.

Namibia

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/namibia/datacoverage

Nepal

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–NARC 2004–05); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/NEPAL_CB37.pdf.

Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the three government agencies. Expenditures at FRD-DFRS, LIBIRD, and New ERA for 1996–97/98 are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at NARC and RONAST.

Nicaragua

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-IICA 2007-08); see for full references http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/ASTICentralAmerica-En.pdf.

Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher in the government sector.

Niger

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/niger/datacoverage

Nigeria

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/nigeria/datacoverage

Pakistan

Compiled from ASTI survey data Beintema et al. (2006); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Pakistan_CB.pdf.

Expenditures for the higher education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the University of Agriculture in Faisalabad and the University of Arid Agriculture in Rawalpindi.

Panama

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-IICA 2007-08) and an unpublished draft by Beintema, Zumbado Rojas, Medina Castro, and Pardey (2000) ; see for full referenceshttp://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/ASTICentralAmerica-En.pdf.

Staff and expenditure data for 1999-2003 have been interpolated. Expenditures for the higher education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies.

Papua New Guinea

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–APAARI 2003-04); Ghodake (1999); and Sitapai (1992); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/PNG_CB28.pdf.

The Vudal Agriculture University was excluded because data were unavailable. Fte researcher and expenditure data for OPRA were estimated using 1998/99 data from Ghodake (1999). Expenditures for the higher-education sector in the sample are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at NARI and PNGFRI.

Paraguay

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI 2007-08), Beintema et al. (2000) and CONACYT (2005); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Paraguay_CB40_En.pdf.

Data for DIPA, CETAPAR, and higher education agencies were unavailable for 1997-2003. Data were unavailable for DIA for 1999-2003. Spending totals are from CONACYT (2005) and include agricultural R&D expenditures by all public agencies in the country. Spending data by agency were unavailable. Expenditure totals were estimated based on expenditure totals for 2005 and annual changes that occurred at DIA, DIPA, and CETAPAR during 2005-06.

Philippines

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–PCARRD 2003–05); see for full references, http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/PhilippinesCR.pdf.

Expenditures for a number of government agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the remaining government agencies. Estimates were made for 11 higher education agencies for which information was not available. Expenditures for the higher education sector are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies. Expenditures for eight private enterprises are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher for the private enterprises for which data were available.

Rwanda

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/rwanda/datacoverage

Senegal

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/senegal/datacoverage

Sierra Leone

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/sierra-leone/datacoverage

South Africa

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/south-africa/datacoverage

Sri Lanka

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–CARP 2004-05) and Girihagama (2004); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/SriLanka_CB31.pdf).

Total research staff and expenditures prior to 1994 are estimated using inter- and extrapolations based on data available for various years and agencies from CARP-ISNAR (1990); Vernon (1989); ISNAR, IFARD, and AOAD (1985); and various other secondary sources. Staff and expenditure data for FD are estimates based on 2002 data from Girihagama (2004). Expenditures for the higher-education agencies are estimates based on the average expenditures per researcher of the 14 government agencies. CIC expenditures are estimates based on the assumption that average spending per researcher at private companies is 50 percent higher than the average expenditures per researcher for government agencies.

Sudan

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/sudan/datacoverage

Syria

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI 2004-05) and Al-Ahmad et al. (1999); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Syria_CB35.pdf.

GCSAR data for 1998 were derived by summing data for five of the nine MAAR entities that were merged to form GCSAR in 2002. Until May 2003, GCSAR funding was administered by MAAR; hence, total spending was estimated based on the remaining eight months of the year. Expenditures for GOSM and the seven higher education agencies were estimated based on the combined average expenditures per researcher for GCSAR and the four other government agencies. Expenditures for the business enterprises were estimated using partial spending data for one of the two enterprises.

Tanzania

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/tanzania/datacoverage

Tunisia

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–ISNAR–IRESA 2003–04); Lasram and Mekni (1999); MRSTDC (2004); and INSTM (2004); see for full references, http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/TUNISIA_CB29.pdf.

Total researcher numbers and expenditures for IRA, CBS, and INNTA during 1997–2002 have been interpolated. Analysis excludes resources used by IRESA for the overall management of its agencies. Expenditures for IRA, CBS, and INNTA are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the four IRESA research institutes.

Togo

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/togo/datacoverage

Uganda

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/uganda/datacoverage

Uruguay

Compiled by authors from ASTI survey data (IFPRI-INIA 2007-08), estimations based on UdelaR (2008), and Beintema, Hareau, Bianco, and Pardey (2000); for full references, see: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Uruguay_CB43.pdf.

Data for 1981-94 and 1997-2003 have been extrapolated or interpolated for government agencies other than INIA, the nonprofit agencies, and the higher education agencies. Expenditures for the higher education agencies are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies.

Vietnam

Compiled from ASTI survey data (IFPRI–MARD 2004–05); see for full references: http://www.asti.cgiar.org/pdf/Vietnam_CB33.pdf.

Expenditures for the higher-education sector in our sample are estimates based on average expenditures per researcher at the government agencies.

Zambia

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/zambia/datacoverage

Zimbabwe

http://www.asti.cgiar.org/zimbabwe/datacoverage

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